Stephen J. Evans

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Quantitative methods are increasingly used to analyse spontaneous reports. We describe the core concepts behind the most common methods, the proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), information component (IC) and empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM). We discuss the role of Bayesian shrinkage in screening spontaneous reports, the(More)
The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement, including a checklist and a flow diagram, was developed to help authors improve their reporting of randomized controlled trials. Its primary focus was on individually randomized trials with 2 parallel groups that assess the possible superiority of one treatment compared with another but is(More)
In response to overwhelming evidence and the consequences of poor-quality reporting of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), many medical journals and editorial groups have now endorsed the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement, a 22-item checklist and flow diagram. Because CONSORT primarily aimed at improving the quality of(More)
AIMS To assess the effect of statins on a range of health outcomes. METHODS We undertook a population-based cohort study to assess the effect of statins on a range of health outcomes using a propensity score-based method to control for differences between people prescribed and not prescribed statins. We validated our design by comparing our results for(More)
Robust tools for monitoring the safety of marketed therapeutic products are of paramount importance to public health. In recent years, innovative statistical approaches have been developed to screen large post-marketing safety databases for adverse events (AEs) that occur with disproportionate frequency. These methods, known variously as quantitative signal(More)
Vitamin D deficiency reduces insulin secretion and still occurs in East London Asians in whom the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is at least four times that of Caucasians. Vitamin D status was assessed in 44 of 65 non-diabetic subjects ‘at risk’ of diabetes (spot blood glucose level >6.0 mmol/l <2 h post cibum, or >4.6 mmol/l >2 h post cibum on two(More)
BACKGROUND The results of clinical trials have suggested that the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agents rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are associated with an increased risk of fractures, but such studies had limited power. The increased risk in these trials appeared to be limited to women and mainly involved fractures of the arm, wrist, hand, or foot: risk(More)
BACKGROUND Potential adverse effects of antidepressants during pregnancy have caused concern about their use. There are, however, very limited detailed data on patterns of antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy. OBJECTIVE To examine secular trends in prescribing during pregnancy, to assess whether pregnancy is a major determinant for stopping(More)
The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement, which includes a checklist and a flow diagram, is a guideline developed to help authors improve the reporting of the findings from randomized controlled trials. It was updated most recently in 2010. Its primary focus is on individually randomized trials with 2 parallel groups that assess(More)