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For many decades, developmental and comparative psychologists have used a variety of string tasks to assess the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of human children of different ages and different species of nonhuman animals. The most important and widely used of these problems are patterned-string tasks, in which the organism is shown two or more(More)
Procrastination is the tendency to delay initiating or completing tasks. Rosenbaum et al. (Psychological Science, May 8, 2014) recently documented the opposite of procrastination: pre-crastination, the tendency to begin or to finish tasks as soon as possible. We devised a simple two-alternative forced-choice task, in which pigeons could choose to switch(More)
Relational concepts—such as connectedness—may be easy for human adults to appreciate; but, obtaining evidence of other species’ understanding of connectedness has been challenging. One key test of connectedness involves an organism’s responding to variants of the string task. Using a virtual string task, we gave pigeons a pair of strings from which to(More)
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