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Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) may activate innate immunity through the engagement of TLRs by endogenous ligands. TLR4 expressed within the kidney is a potential mediator of innate activation and inflammation. Using a mouse model of kidney IRI, we demonstrated a significant increase in TLR4 expression by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and infiltrating(More)
Abnormalities in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells have been implicated in susceptibility to allergic, autoimmune, and immunoinflammatory conditions. However, phenotypic and functional assessment of human T reg cells has been hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between CD25-expressing activated and regulatory T cells. Here, we show that(More)
Macrophage infiltration of the kidney is a prominent feature associated with the severity of renal injury and progressive renal failure. To determine the influence of macrophages in renal disease models in the absence of endogenous T and B cells, we performed adoptive transfer of macrophages into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. In this study,(More)
Regulatory T cells (TREGs) constitutively expressing CD4, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3 can prevent a wide range of experimental and spontaneous autoimmune diseases in mice. In humans, CD4+CD25bright T cells, predominantly within the CD45RO+ activated/memory subset in adults and the CD45RA+ naive T-cell subset in infants, are considered to be the(More)
T he science of kidney transplantation has progressed considerably in the past half-century largely because of an improved understanding of the role of the immune system in allograft rejection, the disentanglement of the molecular mechanisms underlying graft failure, and better management of immunosuppression. 1,2 Rejection has always been the major(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that T cells primed by processed donor major histocompatibility complex antigen (the "indirect" pathway of allorecognition) may be responsible for mediating chronic allograft rejection. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful assay to study the occurrence of indirect allorecognition during chronic(More)
IL-10/TGF-beta-modified macrophages, a subset of activated macrophages, produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that they may protect against inflammation-mediated injury. Here, macrophages modified ex vivo by IL-10/TGF-beta (IL-10/TGF-beta Mu2) significantly attenuated renal inflammation, structural injury, and functional decline in murine(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in organ fibrosis, including that of the kidney. Loss of E-cadherin expression is a hallmark of EMT; however, whether the loss of E-cadherin is a consequence or a cause of EMT remains unknown, especially in the renal system. In this study, we show that transforming growth factor(More)
Objective. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) isa chronic and heterogeneous autoimmune disease. Both twin and sibling studies indicate a strong genetic contribution to lupus, but in the majority of cases the pathogenic variant remains to be identified. The genetic contribution to disease is likely to be greatest in cases with early onset and severe(More)
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder toward the kidney, is common in young children. About 30% of children with urinary tract infections will be diagnosed with VUR after a voiding cystourethrogram. For most, VUR will resolve spontaneously; 20% to 30% will have further infections, but few will experience long-term renal(More)