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NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for(More)
An unprecedented combination of simula-tive and metaphor based reasoning about beliefs is achieved in an AI system, ATT-Meta. Much mundane discourse about beliefs productively uses conceptual metaphors such as MIND AS CONTAINER and IDEAS AS INTERNAL UTTERANCES, and ATT-Meta's metaphor-based reasoning accordingly leads to crucial discourse comprehension(More)
Machine Readable Dictionaries (MRDs) contain much useful information about lan£uage. Researchers have worked for the last decade on ways to extract this information for language processing systems. But processing dictionaries for use in natural language computation is itself a difficult problem. Transforming information from a version designed for human(More)
An unprecedented combination of simulative and metaphor-based reasoning about beliefs is achieved in an AI system, ATT-Meta. Much mundane discourse about beliefs uses conceptual metaphors (e.g., MIND AS CONTAINER) productively, and ATT-Meta's metaphor-based reasoning accordingly leads to crucial discourse comprehension decisions. ATT-Meta's non-metaphorical(More)
Although understanding health information is important, the texts provided are often difficult to understand. There are formulas to measure readability levels, but there is little understanding of how linguistic structures contribute to these difficulties. We are developing a toolkit of linguistic metrics that are validated with representative users and can(More)
We deene within-vehicle and within-tenor reasoning to be reasoning that is done on-they within the vehicle domain or tenor domain, respectively, of a conceptual metaphor, during the comprehension of utterances that manifest the metaphor. The main claim of this paper is that, at least in Artiicial Intelligence systems for understanding metaphorical(More)
This paper describes a multi-site project to annotate six sizable bilingual parallel corpora for interlingual content. After presenting the background and objectives of the effort, we will go on to describe the data set that is being annotated, the interlingua representation language used, an interface environment that supports the annotation task and the(More)
In conventional milking systems, dairy cows are driven to the milking stall twice or thrice daily, whereas in automatic milking systems (AMS), the cows enter the milking stall voluntarily. In this study, noninvasive methods were used to analyze the physiological reaction of 17 cows toward the changeover from conventional to automatic milking. Milk yield and(More)
In this paper, we present an approach to machine translation rooted in pragmatic 1. It is an approach which relies on: • the use of context to interpret source language utterances and to produce target language correlates, • a context of the utterance which crucially includes nested beliefs environments which are constructed and modified through ascription(More)