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BACKGROUND Progestogens are used clinically for contraception, to control excessive menstrual bleeding, and to prevent estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. A significant problem with progestogen-only methods of contraception is the induction of breakthrough bleeding. METHODS The effects of different progestogens on angiogenesis were examined using(More)
The angiogenic peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) has been implicated as a mediator of the increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer resulting from the use of tamoxifen for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. ADM has been shown to be induced by tamoxifen in the endometrium and to be a growth factor for endometrial endothelial cells in vitro.(More)
Regions of hypoxia are a common feature of solid tumours. When tumour cells are exposed to hypoxic stress, transcription of a battery of genes is initiated. The angiogenic factor adrenomedullin (ADM) is a hypoxia regulated gene. ADM is thought to act through the G protein-coupled receptor calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), with specificity being(More)
Tamoxifen is currently the most widely used drug for the treatment of breast cancer, but there now exists considerable evidence that tamoxifen can also induce endometrial hyperplasia in pre menopausal women. We have used PCR differential display on primary human endometrial isolates in an attempt to identify genes induced by tamoxifen but not estrogen.(More)
Bleeding problems are the most common reason for discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy. Human endometrium undergoes the unique process of benign angiogenesis under the control of ovarian steroids during reproductive life and it is presumed that similar processes occur when women take hormone replacement therapy. The key players in endometrial(More)
Uterine leiomyomas are the most prevalent benign tumor type in women of reproductive age and are one of the most common indications for hysterectomy. The expression of five angiogenic factors, adrenomedullin (ADM), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acidic fibroblast growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived endothelial(More)
Tamoxifen is the current therapy of choice for patients with oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer, and it is currently under evaluation as a prophylactic for women at high risk of developing the disease. However, tamoxifen is also known to induce proliferative changes in the endometrium increasing the risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia, polyps(More)
Progestogens are used clinically for contraception, to control excessive menstrual bleeding and to oppose oestrogen in hormone replacement therapy. The use of intrauterine levonorgestrel (LNG) is however, associated with endometrial atrophy and decidualisation of the stroma. In this study, we aimed to identify genes whose expression is modulated by LNG(More)
As the degree of complexity in construction systems increases, the concepts of construction simulation must be advanced and formalized in practice as the primary means for designing, analyzing, planning, and controlling construction projects and facilities. Whereas the prevalent approach for simulating construction operations has traditionally been(More)