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The tumour microenvironment thwarts conventional immunotherapy through multiple immunologic mechanisms, such as the secretion of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which stunts local tumour immune responses. Therefore, high doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a conventional cytokine for metastatic melanoma, induces only limited responses. To overcome the(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by tumour cells and immune cells that can polarize many components of the immune system. This Review covers the effects of TGFbeta on natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, CD8(+) and CD4(+) effector and regulatory T cells, and NKT cells in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS A human betaretrovirus resembling the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has been characterized in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and associated with aberrant pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)-E2-like expression. As MMTV is prevalent in mice as either an exogenous or endogenous infection, we tested the hypothesis that MMTV is linked with(More)
Immune homeostasis is a delicate balance between the immune defense against foreign pathogens and suppression of the immune system to maintain self-tolerance and prevent autoimmune disease. Maintenance of this balance involves several crucial networks of cytokines and various cell types. Among these regulators, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is(More)
Since the results of the MOSAIC trial demonstrated an improved disease-free survival in stage III colorectal patients treated with oxaliplatin combined with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid when they were compared with those treated with 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid alone, the addition of this organoplatin to 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid has become(More)
mRNA transfection is a useful approach for temporal cell reprogramming with minimal risk of transgene-mediated mutagenesis. We applied this to redirect lymphocyte cytotoxicity toward malignant cells. Using the chimeric immune receptor (CIR) constructs anti-CD19 CIR and 8H9 CIR, we achieved uniform expression of CIRs on virtually the entire population of(More)
Many potential systemic therapies are being investigated for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The incidence of this malignancy is rising sharply and the vast majority of patients present at advanced stages. Although the earlier dismal results with cytotoxic chemotherapies made way for the development of locoregional therapies that provided(More)
BACKGROUND Recent findings on T cells and dendritic cells have elucidated principles that can be used for a bottom-up approach to engineering artificial antigen presentation on synthetic substrates. OBJECTIVE/METHODS To compare the latest artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) technology, focussing on acellular systems because they offer advantages(More)
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