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Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 degrees C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on(More)
The magnitude of future climate change depends substantially on the greenhouse gas emission pathways we choose. Here we explore the implications of the highest and lowest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions pathways for climate change and associated impacts in California. Based on climate projections from two state-of-the-art climate models(More)
Ž. This paper investigates the significance of induced technological change ITC for the attractiveness of CO abatement policies. We use analytical and numerical general equilib-2 rium models in which technological change results from profit-maximizing investments in R & D. We show that carbon abatement policies have very different impacts on R & D across(More)
Description: In 2001, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released its Third Assessment Report (TAR), which stated that the authors expected that the climate would warm between 1.4º to 5.8º C by 2100. Based on these temperature forecasts, the IPCC has produced a list of likely effects of climate change, some of which are positive (e.g.,(More)
Integrated studies of coupled human and natural systems reveal new and complex patterns and processes not evident when studied by social or natural scientists separately. Synthesis of six case studies from around the world shows that couplings between human and natural systems vary across space, time, and organizational units. They also exhibit nonlinear(More)
Humans have continuously interacted with natural systems, resulting in the formation and development of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS). Recent studies reveal the complexity of organizational, spatial, and temporal couplings of CHANS. These couplings have evolved from direct to more indirect interactions, from adjacent to more distant linkages,(More)
Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [United Nations (1992) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2009] commits signatory nations to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that "would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate(More)
Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate(More)
Controversy surrounds climate change policy analyses because of uncertainties in climatic effects, impacts, mitigation costs and their distributions. Here 2 we address uncertainties in impacts, and provide a method for quantitative estimation of the policy implications of such uncertainties. To calculate an " optimal " control rate or carbon tax a(More)
SUMMARY Human societies derive many essential goods from natural ecosystems, including seafood, game animals, fodder, fuelwood, timber, and pharmaceutical products. These goods represent important and familiar parts of the economy. What has been less appreciated until recently is that natural ecosystems also perform fundamental life-support services without(More)