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Salmonellae possess the ability to adhere to and invade macrophages and in so doing trigger a number of intracellular events that are associated with cellular activation. As an initial approach to defining the mechanisms by which invasive salmonellae alter macrophage function, we have explored the impact of Salmonella infection on the production of human(More)
The emplacement of the 2.05-billion-year-old Bushveld complex, the world's largest layered intrusion and platinum-group element (PGE) repository, is a singular event in the history of the Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa, one of Earth's earliest surviving continental nuclei. In the prevailing model for the complex's mineralization, the radiogenic(More)
The lithospheric mantle beneath the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton of southern Africa shows variations in seismic P-wave velocity at depths within the diamond stability field that correlate with differences in the composition of diamonds and their syngenetic inclusions. Middle Archean mantle depletion events initiated craton keel formation and early harzburgitic(More)
BACKGROUND Otitis media, for which antibiotic treatment failure is increasingly common, is a leading pediatric public health problem. METHODS In vitro and in vivo studies using the chinchilla model of otitis media were performed using a β-lactamase-producing strain of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi 86-028NP) and an isogenic mutant deficient in(More)
Invasive strains of Salmonella spp. cause both systemic and localized infections in humans. The ability to resist infection and some aspects of the tissue pathology associated with the presence of Salmonella in the gastrointestinal tract have been shown to be mediated in part by the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory(More)
Mineral inclusions encapsulated in diamonds are the oldest, deepest, and most pristine samples of Earth's mantle. They provide age and chemical information over a period of 3.5 billion years--a span that includes continental crustal growth, atmospheric evolution, and the initiation of plate tectonics. We compiled isotopic and bulk chemical data of silicate(More)
Bacteria have been shown to adhere to smooth surfaces, such as shunts, by secreting a complex polysaccharide coat called the glycocalyx. We assume that if bacterial adherence could be reduced to zero, foreign-body-related infections would be essentially eliminated. This study describes a new technique for quantitating bacterial adherence to plastic using(More)
The redox state of Earth's convecting mantle, masked by the lithospheric plates and basaltic magmatism of plate tectonics, is a key unknown in the evolutionary history of our planet. Here we report that large, exceptional gem diamonds like the Cullinan, Constellation, and Koh-i-Noor carry direct evidence of crystallization from a redox-sensitive metallic(More)
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