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Exopolysaccharides contribute significantly to attachment and biofilm formation in the opportunisitc pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Psl polysaccharide, which is synthesized by the polysaccharide synthesis locus (psl), is required for biofilm formation in non-mucoid strains that do not rely on alginate as the principal biofilm polysaccharide. In-frame(More)
Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NANase) is hypothesized to act synergistically with cholera toxin (CT) and increase the severity of a secretory response by increasing the binding and penetration of CT to enterocytes. To test this hypothesis, the NANase gene (nanH) from V. cholerae Ogawa 395 was first cloned and sequenced. Isogenic wild-type and NANase- V.(More)
Highly purified, polymyxin-released, low molecular weight Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) catalyzed the hydrolysis of NAD to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. This NAD glycohydrolase activity was stimulated by dithiothreitol and was independent of cellular components. Nicotinamide formation was enhanced by arginine methyl ester > d-arginine(More)
The enteropathogenic potential of 32 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates that do not produce cholera toxin was examined in the orally inoculated, sealed adult mouse model. Live cultures (2 x 10(10) cfu/ml) of 7/16 clinical and 6/16 environmental isolates produced a positive intestinal fluid accumulation (FA) ratio that reached near maximum at approximately 5 h(More)
Mineral inclusions encapsulated in diamonds are the oldest, deepest, and most pristine samples of Earth's mantle. They provide age and chemical information over a period of 3.5 billion years--a span that includes continental crustal growth, atmospheric evolution, and the initiation of plate tectonics. We compiled isotopic and bulk chemical data of silicate(More)
The halophilic bacterium Vibrio hollisae, isolated from patients with diarrhea, produces an extracellular toxin which elongates Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We purified this toxin to homogeneity by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration with Sephacryl S-200, hydrophobic interaction chromatography with phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B,(More)
The emplacement of the 2.05-billion-year-old Bushveld complex, the world's largest layered intrusion and platinum-group element (PGE) repository, is a singular event in the history of the Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa, one of Earth's earliest surviving continental nuclei. In the prevailing model for the complex's mineralization, the radiogenic(More)
Examination of the biological activities of the two known toxins of Clostridium difficile revealed that one of the toxins (toxin A) elicited a hemorrhagic fluid response in rabbit intestinal loops and a positive fluid response in infant mice. The other toxin (toxin B) did not produce a significant fluid response in either model, although the toxin was more(More)
During infection of the gastrointestinal tract, salmonellae induce cytokine production and inflammatory responses which are believed to mediate tissue damage in the host. In a previous study, we reported that salmonellae possess the ability to stimulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) accumulation in primary human monocytes, as well as in the human(More)