Stephen H Loring

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BACKGROUND Survival of patients with acute lung injury or the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been improved by ventilation with small tidal volumes and the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP); however, the optimal level of PEEP has been difficult to determine. In this pilot study, we estimated transpulmonary pressure with the use(More)
OBJECTIVE Pressure inflating the lung during mechanical ventilation is the difference between pressure applied at the airway opening (Pao) and pleural pressure (Ppl). Depending on the chest wall's contribution to respiratory mechanics, a given positive end-expiratory and/or end-inspiratory plateau pressure may be appropriate for one patient but inadequate(More)
Throughout life, most mammals breathe between maximal and minimal lung volumes determined by respiratory mechanics and muscle strength. In contrast, competitive breath-hold divers exceed these limits when they employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) before a dive to increase lung gas volume (providing additional oxygen and intrapulmonary gas to prevent(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea is an important disorder because of both its prevalence and its cardiovascular and neurocognitive sequelae. Despite the fact that male sex is a major risk factor for this disorder, the mechanisms underlying this predisposition are unclear. To understand the pathophysiologic basis of the male predisposition for pharyngeal collapse, we(More)
To determine if regional differences exist in the activity of abdominal muscles during respiratory and nonrespiratory maneuvers, we studied four healthy subjects by comparing electromyographic (EMG) activity from surface electrodes placed lateral to rectus muscle, one pair on the upper abdomen and the other on the lower abdomen. In one subject EMG(More)
PURPOSE To assess forced expiratory tracheal collapsibility in healthy volunteers by using multidetector computed tomography and to compare the results with the current diagnostic criterion for tracheomalacia. MATERIALS AND METHODS An institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study. After informed consent was obtained, 51 healthy volunteers(More)
BACKGROUND Acquired tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) can cause central airway collapse in patients with COPD and may worsen airflow obstruction and symptoms. It is usually not known whether central airway malacia contributes to airflow obstruction. This study was undertaken to quantify central airway collapsibility and relate it to expiratory flow limitation in(More)
A 33-year-old woman underwent a right-sided pneumonectomy in 1995 for treatment of a lung adenocarcinoma. As expected, there was an abrupt decrease in her vital capacity, but unexpectedly, it increased during the subsequent 15 years. Serial computed tomographic (CT) scans showed progressive enlargement of the remaining left lung and an increase in tissue(More)