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Most bacteria that enter the bloodstream are taken up by the liver. Previously, we reported that such organisms are initially bound extracellularly and subsequently killed by immigrating neutrophils, not Kupffer cells as widely presumed in the literature. Rather, the principal functions of Kupffer cells demonstrated herein are to clear bacteria from the(More)
Listeria monocytogenes, a small gram-positive bacillus, causes sepsis and meningitis in immunocompromised patients and a devastating maternal/fetal infection in pregnant women. Recent outbreaks demonstrated that L. monocytogenes can cause gastroenteritis in otherwise healthy individuals and more severe invasive disease in immunocompromised patients.(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped RNA virus and a major cause of chronic liver disease. Resolution of primary HCV infections depends upon the vigorous responses of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells to multiple viral epitopes. Although such broad-based responses are readily detected early during the course of infection regardless of clinical outcome, they(More)
It has been suggested that mononuclear phagocytes serve as the principal site of replication for a number of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes. To determine the role of the tissue macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the proliferation of Listeria taken up in the liver, the hepatic cell populations were purified and the associated bacteria(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is identified with the targeting/sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to the lung. Instrumental to PMN targeting are chemokines [e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), etc.] produced by macrophage, PMN, and other resident pulmonary cells. However, the relative contribution(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Spontaneous resolution of infection is associated with broad, MHC class I- (CD8(+)) and class II-restricted (CD4(+)) T cell responses to multiple viral epitopes. Only 20% of patients clear infection spontaneously, however, most develop chronic disease. The response to chemotherapy varies;(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection depends upon a broad T cell response to multiple viral epitopes. However, most patients fail to clear infections spontaneously and develop chronic disease. The elevated number and function of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg)) in HCV-infected patients suggest(More)
NKT cells have been described as innate regulatory cells because of their rapid response to conserved glycolipids presented on CD1d via their invariant TCR. However, little is known about the contribution of the hepatic NKT cell to the development of a local and/or systemic immune response to acute septic challenge (cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)). We(More)
The liver plays a major role in clearing bacteria from the bloodstream. Rapid clearance is primarily the function of fixed tissue macrophages (Kupffer cells) that line the hepatic sinusoids. Although Kupffer cells play a critical role in blood clearance, the actual elimination of the bulk of bacteria taken up by the liver depends upon the accumulation of(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the etiologic agent of chronic liver disease, hepatitis C. Spontaneous resolution of viral infection is associated with vigorous HLA class I- and class II-restricted T cell responses to multiple viral epitopes. Unfortunately, only 20% of patients clear infection spontaneously, most develop chronic disease and require therapy. The(More)