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The critical role of the liver in the resolution of systemic bacterial infections is well documented. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, approximately 60% of bacteria inoculated i.v. into mice are recovered in the liver at 10 min after infection. Here we report that the Listeria recovered at 10 min were distributed equally among the hepatocyte and(More)
Most relevant textbooks characterize phagocytosis by Kupffer cells as the principal mechanism for clearing bacterial pathogens from the bloodstream and eliminating them from the liver. Here, Stephen Gregory and Edward Wing discuss recent evidence indicating that the actual mechanism is far more complicated, dependent upon the complex interaction of Kupffer(More)
Reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), e.g., nitric oxide derived from a terminal guanido nitrogen atom of L-arginine, exhibit potent antimicrobial activity in vitro. The function of these intermediates in host defenses in vivo, however, is presently unclear. Experiments were undertaken to determine the role of RNI in the resolution of primary listerial(More)
Most bacteria that enter the bloodstream are taken up by the liver. Previously, we reported that such organisms are initially bound extracellularly and subsequently killed by immigrating neutrophils, not Kupffer cells as widely presumed in the literature. Rather, the principal functions of Kupffer cells demonstrated herein are to clear bacteria from the(More)
Listeria monocytogenes, a small gram-positive bacillus, causes sepsis and meningitis in immunocompromised patients and a devastating maternal/fetal infection in pregnant women. Recent outbreaks demonstrated that L. monocytogenes can cause gastroenteritis in otherwise healthy individuals and more severe invasive disease in immunocompromised patients.(More)
The serum and tissue levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are elevated in mice during a primary immunologic response to infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Experiments were performed to determine the specific role of M-CSF in the resolution of listerial infections. The bulk of Listeria injected into a mouse i.v. is deposited in the liver.(More)
We previously reported that the bulk of Listeria monocytogenes injected intravenously into mice is taken up in the liver and replicates within the parenchymal cells (hepatocytes). Although IFN-gamma is known to play an important role in host defenses to listerial infections of the liver, the mechanism(s) that underlies this role remains to be fully(More)
Hepatitis C virus, a small single-stranded RNA virus, is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Resolution of primary hepatitis C virus infections depends upon the vigorous responses of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to multiple viral epitopes. Although such broad CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses are readily detected early during the course of infection(More)
Although studies have shown increased evidence of death receptor-driven apoptosis in intestinal lymphoid cells, splenocytes, and the liver following the onset of polymicrobial sepsis, little is known about the mediators controlling this process or their pathologic contribution. We therefore attempted to test the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic(More)
Most bacteria that enter the bloodstream are taken up and eliminated within the liver. The specific mechanisms that underlie the role of the liver in the resolution of systemic bacterial infections remain to be determined. The vast majority of studies undertaken to date have focused on the function of resident tissue macrophages (Kupffer cells) that line(More)