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PURPOSE OF REVIEW Adoption of the term intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder, IDD) in DSM-5 represents a shift from a disability (test score) emphasis to a disorder (medical/neurobiological) emphasis. Several implications of this shift for definition and diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID) are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS The(More)
Adaptive Behavior is a construct originally invented as a prong for diagnosing Mental Retardation, but it has come to also play a role in diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). In this paper, we: (a) describe the meaning and measurement of adaptive behavior, including the need for improved measures (b) illustrate clinical and research uses of(More)
A historical overview of efforts to integrate social competence into a definition of mental retardation was provided. The existing AAMR definition was criticized for its incorporation of a muddled construct of adaptive behavior, which over-emphasizes psychopathology and underemphasizes social intelligence. A model of general competence was presented, and(More)
Traditional classification of psychopathology is based on either symptom clusters or etiology. The authors suggest the use of a developmental structuralist approach, which focuses on an organism's manner of organizing and differentiating its experience of the world (structures) at each developmental level. The authors describe their postulated development(More)
Eighty male and female first- and third-grader Ss were presented one of two brief videotaped social interaction episodes. Half of the Ss viewed an unambiguous tape in which a target character's affective response was congruent with the situational context in which he operated. The remaining Ss viewed a similar, but ambiguous tape in which the nonverbal(More)
Survival in the everyday world (in both social and practical functioning) depends on one's ability to recognise and avoid going down the worst possible path, especially when doing so places one at risk of death, injury, or social disaster. Most people possess "common sense" (the ability to recognise obvious risk) but some people lack that ability and thus(More)
There is a growing awareness among mental health practitioners that many mental disorders previously believed to be primarily behavioral in nature, reflecting character and environment, are actually grounded in brain mal-development or brain disorder. This growing awareness, influenced by the advent of new diagnostic procedures and measures, is also found(More)
Recent developments in the definitional literature on mental retardation emphasize the need to ground the concept of adaptive behavior in an expanded model of intelligence, which includes practical and social intelligence. Development of a direct measure of practical intelligence might increase the likelihood that an assessment of this domain would be(More)