Stephen G. Lisberger

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1. We recorded from neurons in the brain stem of monkeys before and after they had worn magnifying or miniaturizing spectacles to cause changes in the gain of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). The gain of the VOR was estimated as eye speed divided by head speed during passive horizontal head rotation in darkness. Electrical stimulation in the cerebellum was(More)
The function of smooth pursuit is to keep the fovea pointed at a small visual target that moves smoothly across a patterned background. Chemical lesions, single cell recordings, and behavioral measures have shown that the cortical motion processing pathways form the afferent limb for pursuit. Important areas include at least the striate cortex and the(More)
Comparison of two seemingly quite different behaviors yields a surprisingly consistent picture of the role of the cerebellum in motor learning. Behavioral and physiological data about classical conditioning of the eyelid response and motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex suggests that (i) plasticity is distributed between the cerebellar cortex and(More)
We asked whether the dynamics of target motion are represented in visual area MT and how information about image velocity and acceleration might be extracted from the population responses in area MT for use in motor control. The time course of MT neuron responses was recorded in anesthetized macaque monkeys during target motions that covered the range of(More)
1. We made extracellular recordings from Purkinje cells in the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus of awake monkeys before and after motor learning in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). Three samples were recorded 1) after miniaturizing spectacles had reduced the gain of the VOR (eye speed divided by head speed) to 0.4; 2) when the gain of the VOR was near(More)
Neurons in area MT, a motion-sensitive area of extrastriate cortex, respond to a step of target velocity with a transient-sustained firing pattern. The transition from a high initial firing rate to a lower sustained rate occurs over a time course of 20-80 ms and is considered a form of short-term adaptation. The present paper asks whether adaptation is due(More)
Tuning for speed is one key feature of motion-selective neurons in the middle temporal visual area of the macaque cortex (MT, or V5). The present paper asks whether speed is coded in a way that is invariant to the shape of the moving stimulus, and if so, how. When tested with single sine-wave gratings of different spatial and temporal frequencies, MT(More)
1. We have identified a group of brain stem cells called "flocculus target neurons" (or FTNs) because they are inhibited at monosynaptic latencies by stimulation of the flocculus and the ventral paraflocculus with single electrical pulses. We report the responses of FTNs, as well as those of other brain stem cells, during horizontal eye movements with the(More)
The vestibulo-ocular reflex functions to prevent head movements from disturbing retinal images by generating compensatory eye movements to offset the head movements. In the monkey--the species mainly under consideration here--this reflex is machine-like and very effective. In the short-term, the VOR operates as an open-loop control system without the(More)
We recorded the responses of direction-selective simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized, paralyzed macaque monkeys. When studied with sine-wave gratings, almost all simple cells in V1 had responses that were separable for spatial and temporal frequency: the preferred temporal frequency did not change and preferred speed(More)