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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are first detected in the floor of the embryonic dorsal aorta (DA), and we investigate the signals that induce the HSC program there. We show that while continued Hedgehog (Hh) signaling from the overlying midline structures maintains the arterial program characteristic of the DA roof, a ventral Bmp4 signal induces the blood(More)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) catalyse the acetylation of arylamine, arylhydrazine and arylhydroxylamine substrates by acetyl Coenzyme A. NAT has been discovered in a wide range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic species. Although prokaryotic NATs have been implicated in xenobiotic metabolism, to date no endogenous role has been identified for the(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked muscle-wasting disease caused by lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. There is currently no cure for DMD although various promising approaches are progressing through human clinical trials. By pharmacologically modulating the expression of the dystrophin-related protein utrophin, we have(More)
A new paradigm for drug research has emerged, namely the deliberate search for molecules able to selectively affect the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of adult stem cells within the tissues in which they exist. Recently, there has been significant interest in medicinal chemistry toward the discovery and design of low molecular weight(More)
The identification, synthesis and evaluation of a series of rhodanine and thiazolidin-2,4-dione derivatives as selective inhibitors of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 and mouse arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 is described. The most potent inhibitors identified have submicromolar activity and inhibit both the recombinant proteins and human NAT1 in(More)
The identification, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of naphthoquinone derivatives as selective inhibitors of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 and mouse arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 are described. The compounds undergo a distinctive color change (red --> blue) upon binding to these human and mouse NAT isoenzymes driven by a proton transfer(More)
New anti-tubercular drugs and drug targets are urgently needed to reduce the time for treatment and also to identify agents that will be effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis persisting intracellularly. Mycobacteria have a unique cell wall. Deletion of the gene for arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) decreases mycobacterial cell wall lipids,(More)
In this study, we show that extracts and a purified compound of Warburgia salutaris exhibit anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur. The extracts did not inhibit growth of Escherichia coli and were not toxic to cultured mammalian macrophage cells at the concentrations at which(More)
Latent M. tuberculosis infection presents one of the major obstacles in the global eradication of tuberculosis (TB). Cholesterol plays a critical role in the persistence of M. tuberculosis within the macrophage during latent infection. Catabolism of cholesterol contributes to the pool of propionyl-CoA, a precursor that is incorporated into cell-wall lipids.(More)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are a family of enzymes found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. While the precise endogenous function of NAT remains unknown for most organisms, recent evidence has shown that the expression of human NAT1 is up-regulated in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Additionally, NAT in mycobacteria is required for(More)