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The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
The three giant multifunctional polypeptides of the rapamycin (Rp)-producing polyketide synthase (RAPS1, RAPS2 and RAPS3) have recently been shown to contain 14 separate sets, or modules, of enzyme activities, each module catalysing a specific round of polyketide chain extension. Detailed sequence comparison between these protein modules has allowed further(More)
Erythromycin A, a clinically important polyketide antibiotic, is produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea. In an arrangement that seems to be generally true of antibiotic biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces and related bacteria like S. erythraea, the ery genes encoding the biosynthetic pathway to erythromycin are clustered around(More)
Sequencing of the eryA region of the erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Saccharopolyspora erythraea has revealed another structural gene (ORF B), in addition to the previously characterised ORF A, which appears to encode a component of 6-deoxyerythronolide-B synthase, the enzyme that catalyses the first stage in the biosynthesis of the polyketide(More)
The macrolide antibiotic concanamycin A has been identified as an exceptionally potent inhibitor of the vacuolar (V-type) ATPase. Such compounds have been mooted as the basis of a potential drug treatment for osteoporosis, since the V-ATPase is involved in the osteoclast-mediated bone resorption that underlies this common condition. To enable combinatorial(More)
The gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the clinically important glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin has been cloned from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. Forty-nine putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified within an 89 kbp genetic locus and assigned roles in teicoplanin biosynthesis, export, resistance, and regulation. Two ORFs, designated orfs 1(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised from L-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) encoded by the NOS 3 gene on chromosome 7. Because reduced NO synthesis has been implicated in the development of coronary atherosclerosis, which has a heritable component, we hypothesised that polymorphisms of NOS 3 might be(More)
Saccharopolyspora erythraea is used for the industrial-scale production of the antibiotic erythromycin A, derivatives of which play a vital role in medicine. The sequenced chromosome of this soil bacterium comprises 8,212,805 base pairs, predicted to encode 7,264 genes. It is circular, like those of the pathogenic actinomycetes Mycobacterium tuberculosis(More)
The macrocyclic polyketides rapamycin and FK506 are potent immunosuppressants that prevent T-cell proliferation through specific binding to intracellular protein receptors (immunophilins). The cloning and specific alteration of the biosynthetic genes for these polyketides might allow the biosynthesis of clinically valuable analogues. We report here that(More)
Analysis of the gene cluster from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that governs the biosynthesis of the polyketide immuno-suppressant rapamycin (Rp) has revealed that it contains three exceptionally large open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the modular polyketide synthase (PKS). Between two of these lies a fourth gene (rapP) encoding a pipecolate-incorporating(More)