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The sea ice does not only determine the ecology of ice biota, but it also influences the pelagic systems under the ice cover and at ice edges. In this paper, new estimates of Arctic and Antarctic production of biogenic carbon are derived, and differences as well as similarities between the two oceans are examined. In ice-covered seas, high algal… (More)
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An autumn bloom of sea-ice algae was observed from February to June of 1992 within the upper 0.4 meter of multiyear ice in the Western Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The bloom was reliant on the freezing of porous areas within the ice that initiated a vertical exchange of nutrient-depleted brine with nutrient-rich seawater. This replenishment of nutrients to the… (More)
Cores and brine samples from sea ice of the Weddell Sea were analyzed for nutrients (phosphate, nitrate and silicate), salinity and chlorophyll a during winter. Stratigraphic analyses of the cores were also carried out. Bulk nutrient concentrations in the sea ice fluctuated widely and did not correlate with salinity. Nutrient concentrations in cores were… (More)
Acknowledgments The authors thank Office of Naval Research Program Managers Martin Jeffries and Scott Harper for initiating the program and supporting research in the emerging arctic.
WE ARE AMONG THE SCIENTISTS OBJECTING TO THE ECO-CERTIFICATION OF ROSS SEA ANTARCTIC toothfi sh (Dissostichus mawsoni), as described by E. Stokstad in his News Focus story “Behind the eco-label, a debate over Antarctic toothfi sh” (24 September, p. 1596). The public perceives a certifi cation by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) to mean an… (More)
Antarctic sea ice cover has shown a slight increase in overall observed ice extent as derived from satellite mapping from 1979 to 2008, contrary to the decline observed in the Arctic regions. Spatial and temporal variations of the Antarctic sea ice however remain a significant problem to monitor and understand, primarily due to the vast-5 ness and… (More)
Sea-ice conditions were observed using the ASPeCt observation protocol on three cruises in improved in the fall period when conditions were colder. This improvement was in the explainable variance of >70%, although in situ concentration was underestimated (albeit consistently) by the satellite imagery in fall.
This paper discusses a method for using the reflected signal from a stepped-frequency radar system to obtain the electrical permittivity and conductivity in a thin layer at the flat surface of a (possibly inhomogeneous) body. The method is based on a band-limited version of geometrical optics. 1. INTRODUCTION. This work is motivated by the problem of remote… (More)