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Any opinions, findings, or conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the supporting agency. As partners in the National Alternate Assessment Center (NAAC), our work focuses on research on alignment of alternate assessments evaluated with alternate achievement standards. Although we do not conduct state alignment(More)
Phase-change random-access memory (PCRAM) is one of the leading candidates for next-generation data-storage devices, but the trade-off between crystallization (writing) speed and amorphous-phase stability (data retention) presents a key challenge. We control the crystallization kinetics of a phase-change material by applying a constant low voltage via(More)
The success of direct seeding, as a low-cost approach to forest restoration, varies with tree species and seed characteristics. A system to predict which tree species are likely to be suitable for direct seeding would therefore be useful for improving forest restoration projects. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of seed traits on the(More)
The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary(More)
Reaction order in Bi-doped oxide glasses depends on the optical basicity of the glass host. Red and NIR photoluminescence (PL) bands result from Bi(2+) and Bin clusters, respectively. Very similar centers are present in Bi- and Pb-doped oxide and chalcogenide glasses. Bi-implanted and Bi melt-doped chalcogenide glasses display new PL bands, indicating that(More)
We have used the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure (EXAFS) analysis to study the in situ changes in the local atomic structure, which are induced by bandgap laser (wavelength ˆ 690 nm) irradiation of glassy As 2 Se 3. The results indicate both the temporary and permanent light-induced changes in the atomic con®guration around the Se but not the As(More)
A recently developed micrometer-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (μ-SORS) method provides a new analytical capability for investigating non-destructively the chemical composition of sub-surface, micrometer-scale thickness, diffusely scattering layers at depths beyond the reach of conventional confocal Raman microscopy. Here, we demonstrate(More)
How anthropogenic and climatic effects impact on species has arisen as one of the most fundamental questions in conservation biology today. We hypothesised that human land use patterns in an agricultural matrix would influence habitat selection in badgers and, further, that seasonal and climatic factors would also have an impact. Here, using both(More)