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Annexins are Ca2+ and phospholipid binding proteins forming an evolutionary conserved multigene family with members of the family being expressed throughout animal and plant kingdoms. Structurally, annexins are characterized by a highly alpha-helical and tightly packed protein core domain considered to represent a Ca2+-regulated membrane binding module.(More)
Here we show that EGF and EGF receptor (EGFR) are trafficked through a subpopulation of multivesicular endosomes/bodies (MVBs) that are distinct from morphologically identical vacuoles that label for the late endosomal marker lyso-bisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). EGF stimulation increases both MVB biogenesis and inward vesiculation within EGFR-containing MVBs.(More)
Annexins are traditionally thought of as calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins, but recent work suggests a more complex set of functions. More than a thousand proteins of the annexin superfamily have been identified in major eukaryotic phyla, but annexins are absent from yeasts and prokaryotes. The unique annexin core domain is made up of four(More)
The development of the devastating neurodegenerative condition, Alzheimer's disease, is strongly associated with amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition, neuronal apoptosis, and cell loss. Here, we provide evidence that implicates these same mechanisms in the retinal disease glaucoma, a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, previously associated simply(More)
PURPOSE To assess the neuroprotective effects of different glutamate modulation strategies, with a nonselective (MK801) and a selective (ifenprodil) NMDA receptor antagonist and a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (mGluR Group II, LY354740), in glaucoma-related in vivo rat models of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis. METHODS RGC apoptosis was(More)
Age-related macular degeneration is the most common form of legal blindness in westernized societies, and polymorphisms in the gene encoding complement factor H (CFH) are associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration in more than half of affected individuals. To investigate the relationship between complement factor H (CFH) and retinal(More)
Apoptotic nerve cell death is implicated in the pathogenesis of several devastating neurodegenerative conditions, including glaucoma and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We have devised a noninvasive real-time imaging technique using confocal laser-scanning ophthalmoscopy to visualize single nerve cell apoptosis in vivo, which allows longitudinal study(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the effect of IOP on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and correlate the effects with IOP-induced changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) in the retina and optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucomatous rat eyes. METHODS Thirty-seven Dark Agouti rats had elevated IOP induced in the left eye by hypertonic saline episcleral vein injections.(More)
PURPOSE To characterize a spontaneously immortalized human Müller cell line and to determine whether it retains the characteristics of primary isolated cells without undergoing differentiation in vitro. METHODS An immortalized cell line obtained from human retina was investigated for the expression of known markers of Müller cells, including cellular(More)
Mammalian genomes contain numerous fragments of DNA that are derived from inactivated transposable elements. The accumulation and persistence of these elements is generally attributed to transposase activity rather than through possession or acquisition of a function of value to the host genome. Here we describe such a repetitive element, named ALF(More)