Stephen E. Gould

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Ligand-dependent activation of the hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway has been associated with tumorigenesis in a number of human tissues. Here we show that, although previous reports have described a cell-autonomous role for Hh signalling in these tumours, Hh ligands fail to activate signalling in tumour epithelial cells. In contrast, our data support(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is inappropriately activated in certain human cancers, including medulloblastoma, an aggressive brain tumor. GDC-0449, a drug that inhibits Hh signaling by targeting the serpentine receptor Smoothened (SMO), has produced promising anti-tumor responses in early clinical studies of cancers driven by mutations in this(More)
SAR for a wide variety of heterocyclic replacements for a benzimidazole led to the discovery of functionalized 2-pyridyl amides as novel inhibitors of the hedgehog pathway. The 2-pyridyl amides were optimized for potency, PK, and drug-like properties by modifications to the amide portion of the molecule resulting in 31 (GDC-0449). Amide 31 produced complete(More)
Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been directly linked to medulloblastoma (MB), a common malignant brain tumor in children. GDC-0449 is an Hh pathway inhibitor (HPI) currently under clinical investigation as an anticancer agent. Treatment of a MB patient with GDC-0449 initially regressed tumors, but this individual ultimately relapsed with a D473H(More)
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Aberrant activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway is strongly implicated in the development of some cases of medulloblastoma. A 26-year-old man with metastatic medulloblastoma that was refractory to multiple therapies was treated with a novel hedgehog pathway inhibitor, GDC-0449;(More)
Proapoptotic receptor agonists cause cellular demise through the activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins block apoptosis induced by diverse stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that IAP antagonists in combination with Fas ligand (FasL) or the death receptor 5 (DR5) agonist antibody synergistically(More)
We report the unexpected finding that loss of Hh signaling through conditional deletion of Smoothened (Smo) in the adult hematopoietic compartment has no apparent effect on adult hematopoiesis, including peripheral blood count, number or cell-cycle status of stem or progenitor cells, hematopoietic colony-forming potential, long-term repopulating activity in(More)
Targeted inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) can induce regression of tumors bearing activating mutations in the Ras pathway but rarely leads to tumor eradication. Although combining MEK inhibition with T-cell-directed immunotherapy might lead to more durable efficacy, T cell responses are themselves at least partially(More)
Eighteen women aged 18-31 years were studied daily during the second to fifth postpartum days to assess mood changes and plasma tryptophan and cortisol concentrations. Psychiatric rating scales, clinical interviews, and published biochemical methods were used. Over the period plasma free tryptophan concentrations tended to rise and plasma cortisol(More)
BACKGROUND Proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) play a central role in the response of the kidney to insult by virtue of their production of chemokines and cytokines that signal an inflammatory response. Bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7/OP-1), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, has previously been demonstrated to(More)