Stephen E. Glickman

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Levels of inter-male aggression, both in laboratory encounters and in the field, rise dramatically during the breeding season, closely paralleling the seasonal rise in testosterone. However, post-pubertally castrated males also show the dramatic seasonal rise in aggression in laboratory encounters with castrated opponents and show no decrement in fighting(More)
Female spotted hyenas exhibit male-like genitalia and dominance over males. Hyena ovarian tissues incubated in vitro produced large quantities of the steroid hormone precursor androstenedione. The activity of aromatase, which converts androstenedione to estrogen, was one-twentieth as great in hyena versus human placental homogenates. In comparison, the(More)
Among mammals living in social groups, individuals form communication networks where they signal their identity and social status, facilitating social interaction. In spite of its importance for understanding of mammalian societies, the coding of individual-related information in the vocal signals of non-primate mammals has been relatively neglected. The(More)
Pregnant spotted hyaenas were treated with anti-androgens to interfere with the unusually masculine 'phallic' development that characterizes females of this species. The effects on genital morphology and plasma androgen concentrations of infants were studied during the first 6 months of life. Although there were consistent 'feminizing' effects of prenatal(More)
This report is concerned with hormone concentrations accompanying sexual maturation in a highly 'masculinized' female mammal, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Plasma concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione and oestrogen were determined by radioimmunoassay in a longitudinal study of 12 female and eight male hyaenas 2.5-62.5 months old.(More)
Female moles of the Old World genus Talpa display a curious suite of reproductive features that include a peniform clitoris and ovaries with a discrete interstitial gland or testis-like region (so-called 'ovotestes'). The masculinization of the female external genitalia in Talpa has accordingly been linked with secretion of androgens from the interstitial(More)
Among all extant mammals, only the female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) mates and gives birth through the tip of a peniform clitoris. Clitoral morphology is modulated by foetal exposure to endogenous, maternal androgens. First births through this organ are prolonged and remarkably difficult, often causing death in neonates. Additionally, mating poses a(More)
Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben) present a unique syndrome of reversal in behavioral and anatomical distinction between the sexes: females are heavier and more aggressive than males and dominant over them. The female's external genitalia include a false scrotum and a fully erectile pseudopenis through which mating and birth take place. Results of(More)
Scent marking in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) includes the deposition of anal sac secretions, or "paste," and presumably advertises territorial ownership. To test whether captive hyenas classify and discriminate individuals using odor cues in paste, the authors conducted behavioral discrimination bioassays and recorded hyena investigation of paste(More)