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Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that(More)
To identify evolutionarily conserved features of replication timing and their relationship to epigenetic properties, we profiled replication timing genome-wide in four human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, hESC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), lymphoblastoid cells, and two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hiPSCs), and compared them with(More)
Understanding the topological configurations of chromatin may reveal valuable insights into how the genome and epigenome act in concert to control cell fate during development. Here, we generate high-resolution architecture maps across seven genomic loci in embryonic stem cells and neural progenitor cells. We observe a hierarchy of 3D interactions that(More)
Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) is accompanied by changes in replication timing. To explore the relationship between replication timing and cell fate transitions, we constructed genome-wide replication-timing profiles of 22 independent mouse cell lines representing 10 stages of early mouse development, and transcription profiles for(More)
BACKGROUND The 'CLB2 cluster' in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of approximately 33 genes whose transcription peaks in late G2/early M phase of the cell cycle. Many of these genes are required for execution of the mitotic program and then for cytokinesis. The transcription factor SFF (SWI5 factor) is thought to regulate a program of mitotic transcription(More)
Heterogeneity within pluripotent stem cell (PSC) populations is indicative of dynamic changes that occur when cells drift between different states. Although the role of metastability in PSCs is unclear, it appears to reflect heterogeneity in cell signaling. Using the Fucci cell-cycle indicator system, we show that elevated expression of developmental(More)
functions in vivo are due at least in part to differences in the promoter regions of the various isoform genes (Taipale et al., 1998). It is also possible, but not proven, that there are TGF␤ isoform–specific mechanisms for converting latent TGF␤s to the active forms. and the complex of all three proteins is called the large New York, New York 10016-6402(More)
The therapeutic potential of embryonic stem (ES) cells is promising, but in many cases limited by our inability to promote their differentiation to specific cell types, such as motor neurons. Here we provide the first report of the successful differentiation of human ES cells to cells of a motor neuron phenotype. A renewable source of neuroepithelial cells(More)
Ceramides (Cers) are important in embryogenesis, but no comprehensive analysis of gene expression for Cer metabolism nor the Cer amounts and subspecies has been conducted with an often used model: mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) versus embroid bodies (EBs). Measuring the mRNA levels by quantitative RT-PCR and the amounts of the respective metabolites by(More)
DNA methylation, mediated by the combined action of three DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B), is essential for mammalian development and is a major contributor to cellular transformation. To elucidate how DNA methylation is targeted, we mapped the genome-wide localization of all DNMTs and methylation, and examined the relationships among(More)