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Microglia Initiate Central Nervous System Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses through Multiple TLRs1
Microglia are the resident macrophage-like population in the CNS. Microglia remain quiescent until injury or infection activates the cells to perform effector inflammatory and APC functions. OurExpand
Epitope spreading initiates in the CNS in two mouse models of multiple sclerosis
Chronic progression of two T cell–mediated central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating models of multiple sclerosis, relapsing EAE (R-EAE) and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus–inducedExpand
Cutting Edge: CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Suppress Antigen-Specific Autoreactive Immune Responses and Central Nervous System Inflammation During Active Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis1
Autoreactive CD4+ T cells exist in normal individuals and retain the capacity to initiate autoimmune disease. The current study investigates the role of CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory (TR) cells duringExpand
Differential activation of astrocytes by innate and adaptive immune stimuli
The immunologic privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) makes it crucial that CNS resident cells be capable of responding rapidly to infection. Astrocytes have been reported to expressExpand
Human bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells induce Th2‐polarized immune response and promote endogenous repair in animal models of multiple sclerosis
Cell‐based therapies are attractive approaches to promote myelin repair. Recent studies demonstrated a reduction in disease burden in mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) treatedExpand
CNS myeloid DCs presenting endogenous myelin peptides 'preferentially' polarize CD4+ TH-17 cells in relapsing EAE
Peripherally derived CD11b+ myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), plasmacytoid DCs, CD8α+ DCs and macrophages accumulate in the central nervous system during relapsing experimental autoimmuneExpand
Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo
Multiple sclerosis involves an aberrant autoimmune response and progressive failure of remyelination in the central nervous system. Prevention of neural degeneration and subsequent disabilityExpand
Microparticles bearing encephalitogenic peptides induce T-cell tolerance and ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Aberrant T-cell activation underlies many autoimmune disorders, yet most attempts to induce T-cell tolerance have failed. Building on previous strategies for tolerance induction that exploitedExpand
The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS: utility for understanding disease pathophysiology and treatment.
While no single model can exactly recapitulate all aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), animal models are essential in understanding the induction and pathogenesis of the disease and to developExpand
Persistent infection with Theiler's virus leads to CNS autoimmunity via epitope spreading
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease1, which may be initiated by a virus infection2. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a natural mouseExpand