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While a basic locomotor rhythm is centrally generated by spinal circuits, descending pathways are critical for ensuring appropriate anticipatory modifications of gait to accommodate uneven terrain. Neurons in the motor cortex command the changes in muscle activity required to modify limb trajectory when stepping over obstacles. Simultaneously, neurons in(More)
Dynamics of gait adjustments required to go over obstacles and to alter direction of locomotion when cued visually were assessed through the measurement of ground reaction forces, muscle activity, and kinematics. The time of appearance of obstacles of varying heights, their position within the step cycle, and cue lights for direction change were varied.(More)
To test the hypothesis that reticulospinal neurons (RSNs) are involved in the formation of the dynamic postural adjustments that accompany visually triggered, voluntary modifications of limb trajectory during locomotion, we recorded the activity of 400 cells (183 RSNs; 217 unidentified reticular cells) in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) during(More)
Our goal was to understand the bases for selection of alternate foot placement during locomotion when the normal landing area is undesirable. In this study, a light spot of different shapes and sizes simulated an undesirable landing area. Participants were required to avoid stepping on this spot under different time constraints. Alternate chosen foot(More)
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with altered sensory and motor functions of the knee which may impair balance control when standing and walking. This study examined the organization of electromyographic and kinematic postural responses to frontal plane support surface rotations, after TKA. Eight TKA patients and nine control participants(More)
The focus of this paper is to examine the contributions of active and passive forces in the control of limb trajectory over obstacles during locomotion. Kintetic analyses of the swing phase of locomotion were carried out to determine the power profiles at various joints and to parcel the joint moments into moments due to muscle action, gravitational force(More)
A neural network model has been developed to represent the shaping function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for human locomotion. The model was based on cadence and electromyographic data obtained from a single human subject who walked on a treadmill. The only input to the model was the fundamental timing of the gait cycle (stride rate) in the form of(More)
Skilled locomotor behaviour requires information from various levels within the central nervous system (CNS). Mathematical models have permitted researchers to simulate various mechanisms in order to understand the organization of the locomotor control system. While it is difficult to adequately characterize the numerous inputs to the locomotor control(More)
The balance control system of a group of healthy and fit, young and elderly subjects was studied during the initiation of stepping in one of three directions: forward, sideways, and backwards in response to a light cue. The performance of these movements requires shifting support from two to one foot, moving the centre of mass outside the initial base of(More)
The control of mediolateral dynamic stability during stepping can be particularly challenging for older adults and appears to be related to falls and hip fracture. The specific mechanisms or control challenges that lead to mediolateral instability, however, are not fully understood. This work focussed on the restabilisation phase of volitional forward(More)