Stephen D. Prentice

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Dynamics of gait adjustments required to go over obstacles and to alter direction of locomotion when cued visually were assessed through the measurement of ground reaction forces, muscle activity, and kinematics. The time of appearance of obstacles of varying heights, their position within the step cycle, and cue lights for direction change were varied.(More)
While a basic locomotor rhythm is centrally generated by spinal circuits, descending pathways are critical for ensuring appropriate anticipatory modifications of gait to accommodate uneven terrain. Neurons in the motor cortex command the changes in muscle activity required to modify limb trajectory when stepping over obstacles. Simultaneously, neurons in(More)
Our goal was to understand the bases for selection of alternate foot placement during locomotion when the normal landing area is undesirable. In this study, a light spot of different shapes and sizes simulated an undesirable landing area. Participants were required to avoid stepping on this spot under different time constraints. Alternate chosen foot(More)
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with altered sensory and motor functions of the knee which may impair balance control when standing and walking. This study examined the organization of electromyographic and kinematic postural responses to frontal plane support surface rotations, after TKA. Eight TKA patients and nine control participants(More)
To produce successful and safe walking movements, the locomotor control system must have a detailed awareness of the mechanical properties of the lower limbs. Flexibility of this control comes from an ability to identify and accommodate any changes in limb mechanics by updating its internal representation of the lower limb. To explore the ability of the(More)
The focus of this paper is to examine the contributions of active and passive forces in the control of limb trajectory over obstacles during locomotion. Kintetic analyses of the swing phase of locomotion were carried out to determine the power profiles at various joints and to parcel the joint moments into moments due to muscle action, gravitational force(More)
The balance control system of a group of healthy and fit, young and elderly subjects was studied during the initiation of stepping in one of three directions: forward, sideways, and backwards in response to a light cue. The performance of these movements requires shifting support from two to one foot, moving the centre of mass outside the initial base of(More)
The paper investigates the ability of a sequential neural network to model the time-keeping function (fundamental frequency oscillation) of a central pattern generator for locomotion. The intention is not to strive for biological fidelity, but rather to ensure that the network obeys the organisational and operational principles of central pattern generators(More)
To test the hypothesis that reticulospinal neurons (RSNs) are involved in the formation of the dynamic postural adjustments that accompany visually triggered, voluntary modifications of limb trajectory during locomotion, we recorded the activity of 400 cells (183 RSNs; 217 unidentified reticular cells) in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) during(More)
The lower-limb segment elevation angles during human locomotion have been shown to co-vary in a manner such that they approximate a plane when plotted against each other over a gait cycle. This relationship has been described as the Planar Co-Variation Law and has been shown to be consistent across various modes of locomotion on level ground. The goal of(More)