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The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological(More)
In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host(More)
The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies and functional analyses using 50 K and 770 K SNP genotypes scored in(More)
Genetic parameters for stayability to six ages (ST1, . . ., ST6), for five measures of stayability to calving (SC2, . . ., SC6), and for five measures of stayability to weaning (SW2, . . ., SW6), were estimated using records of 2,019 Hereford cows collected from 1964 to 1979 from a selection experiment with a control line and three lines selected for(More)
The LEE pathogenicity island has been acquired on multiple occasions within the different lineages of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. In each lineage, LEE expression is regulated by complex networks of pathways, including core pathways shared by all lineages and lineage-specific pathways. Within the O157:H7 lineage of(More)
Extreme heat and cold events can create deleterious physiological changes in cattle as they attempt to cope. The genetic background of animals can influence their response to these events. The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of myostatin genotype (MG) on body temperature during periods of heat and cold stress. Two groups of(More)
The objective of this study was to compare test-day (TD) models with autoregressive covariance structures for the estimation of genetic and environmental components of variance for milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in Holstein cows. Four models were compared: model I (CS model) was a simple TD repeatability animal model with(More)
Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,580 first parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Genetic groups for breed of AI sire were fitted to estimate breed differences. Bos Indicus(More)
The plant mitochondrial genome is complex in structure, owing to a high degree of recombination activity that subdivides the genome and increases genetic variation. The replication activity of various portions of the mitochondrial genome appears to be nonuniform, providing the plant with an ability to modulate its mitochondrial genotype during development.(More)