Stephen D. Kachman

Learn More
In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host(More)
Test day models were used to estimate lactation curves for milk, fat, protein, fat percentage, and protein percentage and to study the influence of age, season, and herd productivity on Holstein lactation curves. Random effects of lactation within herd and fixed effects of herd test date were absorbed. Fixed effects of cow's age on test day and either DIM(More)
Traditional selection for sow reproductive longevity is ineffective due to low heritability and late expression of the trait. Incorporation of DNA markers into selection programs is potentially a more practical approach for improving sow lifetime productivity. Using a resource population of crossbred gilts, we explored pleiotropic sources of variation that(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce multiple enterotoxins are important causes of severe dehydrating diarrhea in human beings and animals, but the relative importance of these enterotoxins in the pathogenesis is poorly understood. Gnotobiotic piglets were used to study the importance of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) in infection with(More)
Birth and weaning weights adjusted for age of dam from four lines of Hereford cattle were analyzed to determine the relationships among grandmaternal, maternal, and direct genetic effects. Three lines were selected for 1) weaning weight (WWL), 2) yearling weight (YWL), and 3) an index of yearling weight and muscle score (IXL). The fourth line was an(More)
Fungal DNA was selectively amplified, and the ITS region sequenced, from fecal samples taken from 45 healthy human volunteers at one (21 volunteers) or two (24 volunteers) time points. Seventy-two operational taxonomic units, representing two phyla and ten classes of fungi, were recovered. Candida yeasts, notably Candida tropicalis (present in 51 samples),(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer mixture (mCLA) with each main isomer [trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 CLA (CLA9,11)] in causing body lipid loss and adipose tissue apoptosis. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Mice selected over 16 generations for high (MH) or low (ML) energy expenditure and(More)
The plant mitochondrial genome is complex in structure, owing to a high degree of recombination activity that subdivides the genome and increases genetic variation. The replication activity of various portions of the mitochondrial genome appears to be nonuniform, providing the plant with an ability to modulate its mitochondrial genotype during development.(More)
The occurrence of female sperm storage across taxa indicates the importance of this complex and dynamic process. Organs responsible for sperm storage (SSOs) and proteins expressed therein, are important in fundamental aspects of reproduction and could play a major role in evolutionary processes such as post-mating sexual selection. Given the essential role(More)
The objective of this study was to compare test-day (TD) models with autoregressive covariance structures for the estimation of genetic and environmental components of variance for milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in Holstein cows. Four models were compared: model I (CS model) was a simple TD repeatability animal model with(More)