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In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host(More)
The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that has an important role in host metabolism. Microbial diversity is influenced by a combination of environmental and host genetic factors and is associated with several polygenic diseases. In this study we combined next-generation sequencing, genetic mapping, and a set of physiological(More)
Traditional selection for sow reproductive longevity is ineffective due to low heritability and late expression of the trait. Incorporation of DNA markers into selection programs is potentially a more practical approach for improving sow lifetime productivity. Using a resource population of crossbred gilts, we explored pleiotropic sources of variation that(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer mixture (mCLA) with each main isomer [trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA10,12) and cis-9,trans-11 CLA (CLA9,11)] in causing body lipid loss and adipose tissue apoptosis. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Mice selected over 16 generations for high (MH) or low (ML) energy expenditure and(More)
Test day models were used to estimate lactation curves for milk, fat, protein, fat percentage, and protein percentage and to study the influence of age, season, and herd productivity on Holstein lactation curves. Random effects of lactation within herd and fixed effects of herd test date were absorbed. Fixed effects of cow's age on test day and either DIM(More)
The plant mitochondrial genome is complex in structure, owing to a high degree of recombination activity that subdivides the genome and increases genetic variation. The replication activity of various portions of the mitochondrial genome appears to be nonuniform, providing the plant with an ability to modulate its mitochondrial genotype during development.(More)
In swine, the most common and severe enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are caused by strains that express K88 (F4)(+) fimbriae, heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb), and enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable toxin 1. Previous studies based on a design that involved enterotoxin genes cloned into a nontoxigenic(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce multiple enterotoxins are important causes of severe dehydrating diarrhea in human beings and animals, but the relative importance of these enterotoxins in the pathogenesis is poorly understood. Gnotobiotic piglets were used to study the importance of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) in infection with(More)
Much is known about the effects of high environmental temperature (HT) on egg production, but very little is understood about the mechanisms that underlie them. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of acute heat stress on circulating estradiol, on calcium uptake by gut tissue, on bone resorption, and on the dynamic relationship between(More)