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In the development of speech recognition algorithms, it is important to know whether any apparent difference in performance of algorithms is statistically significant, yet this issue is almost always overlooked. We present two simple tests for deciding whether the difference in error-rates between two algorithms tested on the same data set is statistically(More)
Several factors affecting the automatic classification of musical audio signals are examined. Classification is performed on short audio frames and results are reported as " bag of frames " accuracies, where the audio is segmented into 23ms analysis frames and a majority vote is taken to decide the final classification. The effect of different(More)
TESSA is an experimental system that aims to aid transactions between a deaf person and a clerk in a Post Office by translating the clerk's speech to sign language. A speech recogniser recognises speech from the clerk and the system then synthesizes the appropriate sequence of signs in British Sign language (BSL) using a specially-developed avatar. By using(More)
Determining the position of breaks in a sentence is a key task for a text-to-speech system. A synthesized sentence containing incorrect breaks at best requires increased listening effort, and at worst, may have lower intelligibility and different semantics from a correctly phrased sentence. In addition, the position of breaks must be known before other(More)
—We describe some high-level approaches to estimating confidence scores for the words output by a speech recognizer. By " high-level " we mean that the proposed measures do not rely on decoder specific " side information " and so should find more general applicability than measures that have been developed for specific recognizers. Our main approach is to(More)
—WindSat is a space-based polarimetric microwave ra-diometer designed to demonstrate the capability to measure the ocean surface wind vector using a radiometer. We describe a non-linear iterative algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of sea surface temperature, columnar water vapor, columnar cloud liquid water, and the ocean surface wind vector from WindSat(More)
Two approaches to vector-based call-routing are described, one based on matching queries to routes and the other on matching queries directly to stored queries. We argue that there are some problems with the former approach, both when used directly and when latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to reduce the dimensionality of the vectors. However, the(More)
We describe techniques used in the development of an automatic annotation system for use with a concatenative text-to-speech synthesis system. The goal of the system is to generate automatically from word-level transcriptions annotations that result in synthetic speech of the same quality as that produced from hand-labelled speech. Our approach in this work(More)