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BACKGROUND Gene expression profiling of breast cancer has identified two biologically distinct estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subtypes of breast cancer: luminal A and luminal B. Luminal B tumors have higher proliferation and poorer prognosis than luminal A tumors. In this study, we developed a clinically practical immunohistochemistry assay to distinguish(More)
Primary triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), a tumour type defined by lack of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and ERBB2 gene amplification, represent approximately 16% of all breast cancers. Here we show in 104 TNBC cases that at the time of diagnosis these cancers exhibit a wide and continuous spectrum of genomic evolution, with some having(More)
PURPOSE Basal-like breast cancer is associated with high grade, poor prognosis, and younger patient age. Clinically, a triple-negative phenotype definition [estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2, all negative] is commonly used to identify such cases. EGFR and cytokeratin 5/6 are readily available(More)
The BRCA2 gene is mutated in familial breast and ovarian cancer, and its product is implicated in DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Here we identify a protein, EMSY, which binds BRCA2 within a region (exon 3) deleted in cancer. EMSY is capable of silencing the activation potential of BRCA2 exon 3, associates with chromatin regulators HP1beta and(More)
PURPOSE The third-generation nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are increasingly used as adjuvant and first-line advanced therapy for postmenopausal, hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer. Because many patients subsequently experience progression or relapse, it is important to identify agents with efficacy after AI failure. MATERIALS AND(More)
PURPOSE Adjuvant! (www.adjuvantonline.com) is a web-based tool that predicts 10-year breast cancer outcomes with and without adjuvant systemic therapy, but it has not been independently validated. METHODS Using the British Columbia Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit (BCOU) database, demographic, pathologic, staging, and treatment data on 4,083 women diagnosed(More)
PURPOSE Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) is associated with a poorer outcome in node-positive breast cancer, but the results are conflicting in node-negative disease. This study assessed the prognostic impact of HER2 overexpression/amplification in a large series of node-negative breast cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS A tissue microarray(More)
Podocalyxin is a CD34-related cell surface molecule with anti-adhesive qualities. We probed a tissue microarray (n = 272) linked to long-term outcome data and found that podocalyxin was highly overexpressed in a distinct subset of invasive breast carcinomas (n = 15; 6%). Univariate disease-specific (P < 0.01) and multivariate regression (P < 0.0005)(More)
BACKGROUND Axillary lymph node involvement remains the most important prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer. We hypothesized that molecular classification based on breast cancer biology would predict the presence of nodal involvement at diagnosis, which might aid treatment decisions regarding the axilla. PATIENTS AND METHODS From a clinically(More)
PURPOSE To assess the frequency of expression and the prognostic significance of a hypoxia-regulated marker, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), in a cohort of patients with invasive breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS CA IX expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry with a murine monoclonal antibody, M75, in a series of 103 women treated surgically for(More)