Stephen Cheley

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The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin pore has been determined to 1.9 A resolution. Contained within the mushroom-shaped homo-oligomeric heptamer is a solvent-filled channel, 100 A in length, that runs along the sevenfold axis and ranges from 14 A to 46 A in diameter. The lytic, transmembrane domain comprises the lower half of a(More)
Recently, there has been much interest in using trehalose and other small carbohydrates to preserve mammalian cells in the dried state as an alternative to cryopreservation. Here, we report on the successful preservation of plasma membrane integrity after drying, as a first step toward full preservation of mammalian cells. Trehalose was introduced into(More)
We report that the introduction of low concentrations of intracellular trehalose can greatly improve the survival of mammalian cells during cryopreservation. Using a genetically engineered mutant of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin to create pores in the cellular membrane, we were able to load trehalose into cells. Low concentrations (0.2 M) of(More)
A rapid, microanalytical procedure for the reproducible isolation of RNA from small cultured cell samples and application to dot-blot hybridization is described. The procedure employs guanidine hydrochloride solubilization of whole cells, disruption by syringing, and selective precipitation of RNA with ethanol. The method can be performed in a single tissue(More)
The gene encoding hemolysin II (HlyII) was amplified from Bacillus cereus genomic DNA and a truncated mutant, HlyII(DeltaCT), was constructed lacking the 94 amino acid extension at the C terminus. The proteins were produced in an E. coli cell-free in vitro transcription and translation system, and were shown to assemble into SDS-stable oligomers on rabbit(More)
We describe biosensor elements that are capable of identifying individual DNA strands with single-base resolution. Each biosensor element consists of an individual DNA oligonucleotide covalently attached within the lumen of the alpha-hemolysin (alphaHL) pore to form a "DNA-nanopore". The binding of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules to the tethered DNA(More)
The detection of organic molecules is important in many areas, including medicine, environmental monitoring and defence. Stochastic sensing is an approach that relies on the observation of individual binding events between analyte molecules and a single receptor. Engineered transmembrane protein pores are promising sensor elements for stochastic detection,(More)
BACKGROUND There is a pressing need for new sensors that can detect a variety of analytes, ranging from simple ions to complex compounds and even microorganisms. The devices should offer sensitivity, speed, reversibility and selectivity. Given these criteria, protein pores, remodeled so that their transmembrane conductances are modulated by the association(More)
Extended retro (reversed) peptide sequences have not previously been accommodated within functional proteins. Here, we show that the entire transmembrane portion of the beta-barrel of the pore-forming protein alpha-hemolysin can be formed by retrosequences comprising a total of 175 amino acid residues, 25 contributed by the central sequence of each subunit(More)
Elucidation of the accurate subunit stoichiometry of oligomeric membrane proteins is fraught with complexities. The interpretations of chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and low-resolution electron microscopy studies are often ambiguous. Staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin (alpha HL), a homooligomeric toxin that forms(More)