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BACKGROUND Community acquired pneumonia remains an important cause of hospital admission and carries an appreciable mortality. Criteria for the assessment of severity during admission have been developed by the British Thoracic Society (BTS). A study was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a severity rule based on a modification of the(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to provide a contemporary picture of the presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large patient cohort from multiple locations worldwide. METHODS Prospective cohort study of 2781 adults with definite IE who were admitted to 58 hospitals in 25 countries from June 1, 2000, through September 1, 2005. (More)
BACKGROUND In adults, viral causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly characterised. The aims of this study were to characterise the viral aetiology of CAP in adults by using an extensive array of viral diagnostic tests and to compare the characteristics of viral pneumonia with those of pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS Adults admitted to(More)
AIMS The aims of the study were a) to determine if there is evidence of saturable protein binding of cefazolin in plasma across the range of concentrations achieved clinically (between patient variability) and b) to investigate whether saturable protein binding is also evident from trough and peak concentrations in the same patient (within patient(More)
In healthy human subjects, glycine betaine concentrations in the blood plasma are normally between 20 and 60 mumol/l, adult males tending to have higher concentrations than females. Proline betaine concentrations are more variable, ranging from undetectable to about 50 mumol/l. Both betaines are present in urine. Whereas the urinary excretion of proline(More)
In order to determine the effect of catheter materials on formation of encrustations in long-term indwelling urinary catheters in the elderly we performed a crossover study utilizing commercially available silicone, silicone-coated, teflon-coated and latex catheters that were left in place for 14 days. The study was conducted with #18 french catheters(More)
BACKGROUND Low plasma betaine has been associated with unfavorable plasma lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk. In some studies raised plasma betaine after supplementation is associated with elevations in plasma lipids. We aimed to measure the relationships between plasma and urine betaine and plasma lipids, and the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on(More)
The HACEK organisms (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter species, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species) are rare causes of infective endocarditis (IE). The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with HACEK endocarditis (HE) in a large multi-national cohort. Patients(More)