Stephen Chambers

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BACKGROUND We sought to provide a contemporary picture of the presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large patient cohort from multiple locations worldwide. METHODS Prospective cohort study of 2781 adults with definite IE who were admitted to 58 hospitals in 25 countries from June 1, 2000, through September 1, 2005. (More)
BACKGROUND In adults, viral causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly characterised. The aims of this study were to characterise the viral aetiology of CAP in adults by using an extensive array of viral diagnostic tests and to compare the characteristics of viral pneumonia with those of pneumococcal pneumonia. METHODS Adults admitted to(More)
  • A M Neill, I R Martin, +9 authors G I Town
  • Thorax
  • 1996
BACKGROUND Community acquired pneumonia remains an important cause of hospital admission and carries an appreciable mortality. Criteria for the assessment of severity during admission have been developed by the British Thoracic Society (BTS). A study was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a severity rule based on a modification of the(More)
Legionella pneumonia can be difficult to diagnose. Existing laboratory tests for detecting Legionella species lack sensitivity or provide only a retrospective diagnosis. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that amplify a 104-base pair segment of the coding region of the 5S tRNA gene to detect Legionella DNA in urine and serum samples(More)
In healthy human subjects, glycine betaine concentrations in the blood plasma are normally between 20 and 60 mumol/l, adult males tending to have higher concentrations than females. Proline betaine concentrations are more variable, ranging from undetectable to about 50 mumol/l. Both betaines are present in urine. Whereas the urinary excretion of proline(More)
Glycine betaine is believed to be the most active naturally occurring osmoprotectant molecule for Escherichia coli and other bacteria. It is a dipolar ion possessing a quaternary ammonimum group and a carboxylic acid group. To examine the molecular requirements for osmoprotective activity, dimethylthetin was compared with glycine betaine. Dimethylthetin is(More)
Tissue betaine is an intracellular osmolyte that also provides a store of labile methyl groups. Despite these important biological roles, there are few data regarding tissue betaine content. We measured the betaine concentration of plasma and various tissues (brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, reproductive tissues, skeletal muscle and(More)
Growth of Escherichia coli was inhibited in a defined minimal medium by high concentrations of electrolytes and sugars in direct relation to their osmotic strength. Choline, betaine, proline, and human urine increased resistance to these substances. In contrast, the toxic effect of urea was not altered directly by betaine or urine, but was reduced in the(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We(More)