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Issues in Ecology is designed to report, in language understandable by non-scientists, the consensus of a panel of scientific experts on issues relevant to the environment. Issues in Ecology is supported by the Pew Scholars in Conservation Biology program and by the Ecological Society of America. It is published at irregular intervals, as reports are(More)
Chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP) could potentially work by directly stimulating the biochemical machinery that underlies synaptic plasticity, bypassing the need for synaptic activation. Previous reports suggested that agents that raise cAMP concentration might have this capability. We examined the cLTP induced in acute slices by application(More)
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a leading candidate for a synaptic memory molecule because it is persistently activated after long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and because mutations that block this persistent activity prevent LTP and learning. Previous work showed that synaptic stimulation causes a rapidly reversible(More)
The records of 34 patients over 16 years of age with cerebellar medulloblastoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated by surgery, and all surviving patients were given radiation therapy. The imaging characteristics of this rare entity were evaluated with regard to the tumor location in the cerebellum, and the prognostic effects of(More)
This report describes 60 dural specimens from patients with pituitary adenomas treated by transsphenoidal microsurgery, and attempts to define more precisely the clinical and pathological correlation of microscopic dural invasion. Analysis of the adenomas was based on four characteristics; size, surgical invasiveness (based on the surgeon's assessment of(More)
Ensemble, the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Pathways project for Computing, builds upon a diverse group of prior NSDL, DL-I, and other projects. Ensemble has shaped its activities according to principles related to design, development, implementation, and operation of distributed portals. Here we articulate 8 key principles for distributed portals(More)
Recent concern over the problem of climate change has generated renewed interest in Solar Thermal Power Plants (STPP) as a means of generating electricity. STPPs, although more expensive than conventional fossil-fuel power plants, release much less carbon dioxide and other pollutants. There are several applications for World Bank/GEF funding for STPPs in(More)
T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of(More)
The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or(More)
IL-21 is produced predominantly by activated CD4(+) T cells and has pleiotropic effects on immunity via the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R), a member of the common gamma chain (γc) cytokine receptor family. We show that IL-21 signaling plays a crucial role in T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by augmenting CD8(+) T cell priming, promoting(More)