Stephen Carpenter

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Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a leading candidate for a synaptic memory molecule because it is persistently activated after long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and because mutations that block this persistent activity prevent LTP and learning. Previous work showed that synaptic stimulation causes a rapidly reversible(More)
Chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP) could potentially work by directly stimulating the biochemical machinery that underlies synaptic plasticity, bypassing the need for synaptic activation. Previous reports suggested that agents that raise cAMP concentration might have this capability. We examined the cLTP induced in acute slices by application(More)
BACKGROUND As the primary link between the formal health care sector (clinics, physicians, and nurses) and the household level in South Africa, community health workers (CHWs) provide a critical perspective on barriers that exist in rural health care delivery. METHODS A 30-question written questionnaire assessing CHW perspectives on human immunodeficiency(More)
Clinical trials of vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are well under way and results are starting to come in. Some of these results are not so encouraging, as exemplified by the latest Aeras-422 and MVA85A trials. Other than empirically determining whether a vaccine reduces the number of cases of active tuberculosis, which is a daunting prospect(More)
T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of(More)
Despite the introduction almost a century ago of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG), an attenuated form of M. bovis that is used as a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains a global health threat and kills more than 1.5 million people each year. This is mostly because BCG fails to prevent pulmonary disease--the contagious form of(More)
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES India carries approximately 50 per cent of the global burden of visceral leishmaniasis and majority of patients from the poor, rural communities of Bihar State. Zinc is an essential trace element and its relevance for proper functioning of the entire immune system is already well documented. Though low serum zinc levels have been(More)
Short message service (SMS) text messages have been used to remind and encourage patients to take ART in research studies. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility and acceptability of SMS in routine clinical practice. We report patient perspectives on a weekly SMS adherence support program after implementation into clinical care at an HIV clinic(More)
Ensemble, the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Pathways project for Computing, builds upon a diverse group of prior NSDL, DL-I, and other projects. Ensemble has shaped its activities according to principles related to design, development, implementation, and operation of distributed portals. Here we articulate 8 key principles for distributed portals(More)
We report a case of recurrent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC) disease with anti-gamma interferon autoantibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case caused by reinfection with a separate isolate of M. avium. DMAC disease activity was monitored using serum IgG antibody titers against lipid antigens extracted from a MAC strain.