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Why is a guideline needed? Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of poor outcome in pregnancy: the category " hypertensive diseases of pregnancy " remains a leading cause of direct maternal deaths in the United Kingdom 1 ; pre-eclamptic conditions represent one in three cases of severe obstetric morbidity 2 ; hypertension and/or proteinuria is the leading single(More)
Elevated concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the human myometrium may promote uterine quiescence during pregnancy by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of myosin light-chain kinase, as well as by the phosphorylation and activation of cAMP-dependent transcription factors. In this context, we show that the altered(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations in waveforms in the uterine artery are associated with the development of pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We investigated the predictive accuracy of all uterine artery Doppler indices for both conditions in the first and second trimesters. METHODS We identified relevant studies through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE,(More)
Endothelial-dependent regulation of vascular tone occurs in part via protein kinase G1α-mediated changes in smooth muscle myofilament sensitivity to Ca(2+). Tissue-specific differences in PKG-dependent relaxation have been attributed to altered expression of myofilament-associated proteins that are substrates for PKG binding. These include the alternative(More)
Remodeling of uterine spiral arteries is critical for the continuation of a successful pregnancy. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the predominant leukocyte population in the early pregnant decidua, and a role for these cells in spiral artery remodeling in pregnancy has been suggested. Angiogenic growth factors were measured in isolated uNK and total(More)
BACKGROUND As development proceeds the human embryo attains an ever more complex three dimensional (3D) structure. Analyzing the gene expression patterns that underlie these changes and interpreting their significance depends on identifying the anatomical structures to which they map and following these patterns in developing 3D structures over time. The(More)
There is evidence from many studies indicating that a number of specific quiescent and contractile associated proteins are temporally regulated in the myometrium during pregnancy. In this present investigation we provide data that strongly suggest that myometrial connexin-43, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2), and Gs alpha proteins are also spatially(More)
BACKGROUND Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are a major source of cytokines and angiogenic growth factors (AGFs), with AGF levels decreasing and cytokine levels increasing with gestational age. The factors that regulate AGF and cytokine secretion are unclear but may involve interactions between uNK cells and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells. We(More)
The discrete regulation of vascular tone in the human uterine and placental circulations is a key determinant of appropriate uteroplacental blood perfusion and pregnancy success. Humoral factors such as estrogen, which increases in the placenta and maternal circulation throughout human pregnancy, may regulate these vascular beds as studies of animal(More)
BACKGROUND Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of(More)