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We have studied the distribution of the calcium-binding protein calbindin in the adult rabbit retina by using a commercially available antibody and immunocytochemical methods. The most heavily labeled cells are A-type horizontal cells, but B-type horizontal cells are also lightly labeled by this antibody. Among the horizontal cells, there is a mosaic of(More)
In this report we describe extracellular recordings made from ON and ON-OFF directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells in the rabbit retina during perfusion with agonists and antagonists to acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Nicotinic ACh agonists strongly excited DS ganglion cell in a dose-dependent manner. Dose-response(More)
The retina is sensitive to light stimuli varying over more than 12 log units in intensity. It accomplishes this, in part, by switching between rod-dominated circuits designed for maximum utilization of scarce photons and cone circuits designed for greater acuity. Rod signals are integrated into the cone pathways through AII amacrine cells, which are(More)
Many neurons in the mammalian retina are coupled by means of gap junctions. Here, we show that, in rabbit retina, an antibody to connexin 36 heavily labels processes of AII amacrine cells, a critical interneuron in the rod pathway. Image analysis indicates that Cx36 is primarily located at dendritic crossings between overlapping AII amacrine cells. This(More)
The morphology, distribution, and coverage of certain cone bipolar cell types were investigated in rabbit retina. Brief in vitro incubation of isolated rabbit retina in the fluorescent dye 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole labeled only a few cell types in the inner nuclear layer. Intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow into these types showed them to be(More)
Gap junction proteins form the substrate for electrical coupling between neurons. These electrical synapses are widespread in the CNS and serve a variety of important functions. In the retina, connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions couple AII amacrine cells and are a requisite component of the high-sensitivity rod photoreceptor pathway. AII amacrine cell coupling(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a neuronal messenger which activates soluble guanylyl cyclase (SGC) in neighboring cells and produces a wide range of physiological effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Using immunocytochemical and histochemical stains, we have characterized the NO/SGC system in the rabbit retina and to a lesser extent, in monkey retina.(More)
The fluorescent dye 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) has previously been used to label starburst amacrine cells selectively in the rabbit retina and AII amacrine cells in the cat retina. Using the rabbit retina, we show that intraocular injection of DAPI labels starburst amacrine cells as seen 1-2 days later. In contrast, after a brief in vitro incubation(More)
Electrical synapses or gap junctions occur between many retinal neurons. However, in most cases, the gap junctions have not been visualized directly. Instead, their presence has been inferred from tracer spread throughout the network of cells. Thus, tracer coupling is taken as a marker for the presence of gap junctions between coupled cells. AII amacrine(More)
The vertebrate retina is a distinctly laminar structure. Functionally, the inner plexiform layer, in which bipolar cells synapse onto amacrine and ganglion cells, is subdivided into two sublaminae. Cells that depolarize at light offset ramify in sublamina a; those that depolarize at light onset ramify in sublamina b. The separation of ON and OFF pathways(More)