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Editorials 714 Cholera is re-emerging as a threat on the global public health stage. The number of reported cases worldwide is back at the peak level observed two decades ago, 1 new Vibrio cholerae strains have appeared and antimicrobial resistance has increased. Weak surveillance systems and the possibility of travel and trade sanctions contribute to(More)
There is evidence that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D) is negatively related to prenatal and adult concentrations of testosterone. It has also been reported that high levels of testosterone at conception in both fathers and mothers are associated with an increased sex ratio (proportion of males at birth). It follows from these(More)
— This paper reports an overview of the navigation and control system design for the new Nereus hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV). Vehicle performance during its first sea trials in November 2007 near Hawaii, and in May and June 2009 in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench is reported. During the latter expedition, the vehicle successfully(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe and analyse the characteristics of oral cholera vaccination campaigns; including location, target population, logistics, vaccine coverage and delivery costs. METHODS We searched PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) website and the Cochrane database with no date or language restrictions. We contacted public health personnel,(More)
— This paper reports the development of a real-time human-computer interface (HCI) system that enables a human operator to more effectively utilize the large volume of quantitative data (navigation, scientific, and vehicle status) generated in real-time by the sensor suites of underwater ro-botic vehicles. The system provides interactive 3-D graphical(More)
OBJECTIVE Primary aluminum production is an industrial process with high potential health risk for workers. We consider in this article how to assess community health risks associated with primary aluminum smelter emissions. METHODS We reviewed the literature on health effects, community exposure data, and dose-response relationships of the principal(More)
☯ These authors contributed equally to this work. Summary Points • A global oral cholera vaccine (OCV) stockpile was established in 2013 to improve rapid access to the vaccine in outbreaks and emergencies in which cholera risk is high. The first deployment from the global OCV stockpile was to South Sudan in 2014 because of high cholera risk from massive(More)
Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera(More)