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Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved at least 2.4 Ga; all oxygenic organisms use the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco)-photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCRC) rather than one of the five other known pathways of autotrophic CO(2) assimilation. The high CO(2) and (initially) O(2)-free conditions permitted the use of a Rubisco with a high(More)
Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms (also known as inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms; both abbreviated as CCMs) presumably evolved under conditions of low CO(2) availability. However, the timing of their origin is unclear since there are no sound estimates from molecular clocks, and even if there were, there are no proxies for the functioning of(More)
The goods and services that lakes provide result from complex interactions between meteorology, hydrology, nutrient loads and in-lake processes. Hydrology and nutrient loads are, in turn, influenced by socioeconomic factors such as human habitation, water abstraction and land-management, within their catchments. Models provide a means of linking these(More)
Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria commonly develop in fresh-, brackish- and marine waters and effective strategies for monitoring and managing cyanobacterial health risks are required to safeguard animal and human health. A multi-interdisciplinary study, including two UK freshwaters with a history of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, was(More)
Climate-induced shifts in the timing of life-history events are a worldwide phenomenon, and these shifts can de-synchronize species interactions such as predator-prey relationships. In order to understand the ecological implications of altered seasonality, we need to consider how shifts in phenology interact with other agents of environmental change such as(More)
Daily productivity determinations of linear photosynthetic electron transfer and of net and gross inorganic CO 2 uptake were determined in situ throughout a 6-week sampling period of the spring phytoplankton bloom in Esthwaite Water in the English Lake District. Photosynthetic electron transfer rates, expressed as gross O 2 evolution, were determined from(More)
Phytoplankton, an assemblage of suspended, primarily autotrophic single cells and colonies, forms part of the base of the pelagic food chain in lakes. The responses of phytoplankton to anthropogenic pressures frequently provide the most visible indication of a long-term change in water quality. Several attributes related to the growth and composition of(More)
Two freshwater macrophytes, Ottelia alismoides and O. acuminata, were grown at low (mean 5 μmol L−1) and high (mean 400 μmol L−1) CO2 concentrations under natural conditions. The ratio of PEPC to RuBisCO activity was 1.8 in O. acuminata in both treatments. In O. alismoides, this ratio was 2.8 and 5.9 when grown at high and low CO2, respectively, as a result(More)
The roach is influential ecologically and has a preference for water temperatures >12°C. In this study, we attempted to predict its habitat expansion in response to global warming, hypothesing its increase in Great Britain. Historical data for air temperature over different time scales (annual, seasonal, monthly and daily) and for the presence of roach in(More)