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The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the… (More)
Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often… (More)
An analysis of 2001 and 2002 West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data shows that counties that report WNV-infected dead birds early in the transmission season are more likely to report subsequent WNV disease cases in humans than are counties that do not report early WNV-infected dead birds.
To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds,… (More)
The idea of a seamless, scaleless data base of digital spatial data for use in auto mated cartography or geographic information systems has intrigued researchers for a number of years. Yet reviewing the plans of mapping agencies in the United States and Europe for their digital data bases in the 1990's shows partitioning by scale, space, and time. Why is… (More)
Just as rules have been developed to measure how well a data base management system conforms to the relational model, the desirable characteristics of a spatial data base management system can be specified. Spatial data base management systems must meet the requirements of conventional data base management systems as well as provide special facilities to… (More)