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The polysaccharide xyloglucan is thought to play an important structural role in the primary cell wall of dicotyledons. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in understanding the biochemical basis and regulation of xyloglucan metabolism, and research over the last 16 years has identified a large family of cell wall proteins that specifically catalyze(More)
Loosening of cell walls is an important developmental process in key stages of the plant life cycle, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical ((*)OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and seedling growth. We used electron paramagnetic resonance(More)
We have developed a method for the colocalization of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity and the donor substrates to which it has access in situ and in vivo. Sulforhodamine conjugates of xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGO-SRs), infiltrated into the tissue, act as acceptor substrate for the enzyme; endogenous xyloglucan acts as donor substrate.(More)
Adaptation of plants to environmental conditions requires that sensing of external stimuli be linked to mechanisms of morphogenesis. The Arabidopsis TCH (for touch) genes are rapidly upregulated in expression in response to environmental stimuli, but a connection between this molecular response and developmental alterations has not been established. We(More)
Major differences in primary cell wall (PCW) components between non-vascular plant taxa are reported. (1) Xyloglucan: driselase digestion yielded isoprimeverose (the diagnostic repeat unit of xyloglucan) from PCW-rich material of Anthoceros (a hornwort), mosses and both leafy and thalloid liverworts, as well as numerous vascular plants, showing xyloglucan(More)
Increasing the L-ascorbate (vitamin C) content of crops could in principle involve promoting its biosynthesis or inhibiting its degradation. Recent progress has revealed biosynthetic pathways for ascorbate, but the degradative pathways remain unclear. The elucidation of such pathways could promote an understanding of the roles of ascorbate in plants, and(More)
The endotransglucosylase action of the enzyme xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) was localized in the roots of diverse vascular plants: club-mosses (lycopodiophytes), ferns, gymnosperms, monocots, and dicots. High action was always found in the epidermis cell wall of the elongation zone and in trichoblasts in the differentiation zone. Clearly(More)
Root hairs are formed by two separate processes: initiation and subsequent tip growth. Root hair initiation is always accompanied by a highly localized increase in xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) action at the site of future bulge formation, where the trichoblast locally loosens its cell wall. This suggests an important role of XET in the first stages(More)
Boron (B) is essential for plant cell-wall structure and membrane functions. Compared with its role in cross-linking the pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), little information is known about the biological role of B in membranes. Here, we investigated the involvement of glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs), major components of lipid rafts,(More)
Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases (XETs) cleave and then re-join xyloglucan chains and may thus contribute to both wall-assembly and wall-loosening. The present experiments demonstrate the simultaneous occurrence in vivo of two types of interpolymeric transglycosylation: "integrational" (in which a newly secreted xyloglucan reacts with a previously(More)