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1. Cell-free extracts of all plants tested contained a novel enzyme activity (xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, XET) able to transfer a high-Mr portion from a donor xyloglucan to a suitable acceptor such as a xyloglucan-derived nonasaccharide (Glc4Xyl3GalFuc; XG9). 2. A simple assay for the enzyme, using [3H]XG9 and based on the ability of the(More)
The polysaccharide xyloglucan is thought to play an important structural role in the primary cell wall of dicotyledons. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in understanding the biochemical basis and regulation of xyloglucan metabolism, and research over the last 16 years has identified a large family of cell wall proteins that specifically catalyze(More)
Scission of plant cell wall polysaccharides in vivo has generally been assumed to be enzymic. However, in the presence of l-ascorbate, such polysaccharides are shown to undergo non-enzymic scission under physiologically relevant conditions. Scission of xyloglucan by 1 mM ascorbate had a pH optimum of 4.5, and the maximum scission rate was reached after a(More)
Loosening of cell walls is an important developmental process in key stages of the plant life cycle, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical ((*)OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and seedling growth. We used electron paramagnetic resonance(More)
Adaptation of plants to environmental conditions requires that sensing of external stimuli be linked to mechanisms of morphogenesis. The Arabidopsis TCH (for touch) genes are rapidly upregulated in expression in response to environmental stimuli, but a connection between this molecular response and developmental alterations has not been established. We(More)
We have developed a method for the colocalization of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity and the donor substrates to which it has access in situ and in vivo. Sulforhodamine conjugates of xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGO-SRs), infiltrated into the tissue, act as acceptor substrate for the enzyme; endogenous xyloglucan acts as donor substrate.(More)
Recent studies demonstrating an in situ formation of methane (CH(4)) within foliage and separate observations that soil-derived CH(4) can be released from the stems of trees have continued the debate about the role of vegetation in CH(4) emissions to the atmosphere. Here, a study of the role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the formation of CH(4) and other(More)
Major differences in primary cell wall (PCW) components between non-vascular plant taxa are reported. (1) Xyloglucan: driselase digestion yielded isoprimeverose (the diagnostic repeat unit of xyloglucan) from PCW-rich material of Anthoceros (a hornwort), mosses and both leafy and thalloid liverworts, as well as numerous vascular plants, showing xyloglucan(More)
Four isoenzymes of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET; EC were isolated from sprouting mung bean seedlings (M35, M45, M55a, M55b) and two from cauliflower florets (C30, C45). Purification in each case was by ammonium sulphate precipitation, reversible formation of a covalent xyloglucan-enzyme complex, and cation-exchange chromatography. The(More)
Hydroxyl radicals (*OH) may cause non-enzymic scission of polysaccharides in vivo, e.g. in plant cell walls and mammalian connective tissues. To provide a method for detecting the action of endogenous *OH in vivo, we investigated the products formed when polysaccharides were treated with *OH (generated in situ by ascorbate-H(2)O(2)-Cu(2+) mixtures) followed(More)