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The carbon and energy metabolisms of a variety of cultured chemolithoautotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal environments were characterized by both enzymatic and genetic analyses. All the Epsilonproteobacteria tested had all three key reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle enzymatic activities--ATP-dependent citrate lyase,(More)
The deep-sea polychaete Alvinella pompejana colonizes tubes on the sides of black smoker chimneys along the East Pacific Rise. A diverse, yet phylogenetically constrained episymbiotic community is obligately associated with its dorsal surface. The morphologically and phylogenetically distinct dominant episymbionts have not yet been cultured, and there are(More)
Alvinella pompejana is a polychaetous annelid that inhabits high-temperature environments associated with active deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise. A unique and diverse epibiotic microflora with a prominent filamentous morphotype is found associated with the worm's dorsal integument. A previous study established the taxonomic positions(More)
Factors governing large-scale spatio-temporal distribution of microorganisms remain unresolved, yet are pivotal to understanding ecosystem value and function. molecular genetic analyses have focused on the influence of niche and neutral processes in determining spatial patterns without considering the temporal scale. Here, we use temporal phylogenetic(More)
The physiology and biochemistry of many taxa inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents have been elucidated; however, the physicochemical factors controlling the distribution of these organisms at a given vent site remain an enigma after 20 years of research. The chemical speciation of particular elements has been suggested as key to controlling biological(More)
Analysis of microbial communities by high-throughput pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA gene PCR amplicons has transformed microbial ecology research and led to the observation that many communities contain a diverse assortment of rare taxa-a phenomenon termed the Rare Biosphere. Multiple studies have investigated the effect of pyrosequencing read quality on(More)
Submarine hydrothermal vents are model systems for the Archaean Earth environment, and some sites maintain conditions that may have favored the formation and evolution of cellular life. Vents are typified by rapid fluctuations in temperature and redox potential that impose a strong selective pressure on resident microbial communities. Nautilia profundicola(More)
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in prevalence. Microcystins are the most commonly produced cyanotoxin. Despite extensive research the variables regulating microcystin production remain unclear. Using a RT-QPCR assay that allowed the precise measurement of mcyE transcriptional gene expression and an ELISA that enabled small changes in total(More)
A novel esterase was identified through functional screening of a metagenomic library in Escherichia coli obtained from Antarctic desert soil. The 297-amino-acid sequence had only low (<29%) similarity to a putative esterase from Burkholderia xenovorans. The enzyme was active over a temperature range of 7 to 54 degrees C and at alkaline pH levels and is a(More)