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In this paper we consider the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in decision support in anticoagulation drug therapy. In this problem domain ANNs can be used to learn the prescribing behaviour of expert physicians or alternatively to learn the outcomes associated with such decisions. Both these possibilities are evaluated and we show how, through the(More)
Recent advances and progress in nanobiotechnology have demonstrated many nanoparticles (NPs) as potential and novel drug delivery vehicles, therapeutic agents, and contrast agents and luminescent biological labels for bioimaging. The emergence of new biomedical applications based on NPs signifies the need to understand, compare, and manage their(More)
In this paper we aim to show how probabilistic prediction of a continuous variable could be more beneficial to a medical practitioner than classification or numeric/point prediction of the same variable in many scenarios. We introduce a probability density forecasting model that produces accurate estimates and achieves statistically consistent predicted(More)
The use of ensembles in machine learning (ML) has had a considerable impact in increasing the accuracy and stability of predictors. This increase in accuracy has come at the cost of comprehensibility as, by definition, an ensemble model is considerably more complex than its component models. This is of significance for decision support systems in medicine(More)
BACKGROUND The unique and tuneable photonic properties of Quantum Dots (QDs) have made them potentially useful tools for imaging biological entities. However, QDs though attractive diagnostic and therapeutic tools, have a major disadvantage due to their inherent cytotoxic nature. The cellular interaction, uptake and resultant toxic influence of CdTe QDs(More)
BACKGROUND The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs) is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12)(More)
OBJECTIVE 'Self Care''cards play a significant role in delivering health education via community pharmacies in Australia and New Zealand. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether such an initiative could have a similar impact in an Irish context. The secondary objective was to understand the importance of health literacy to this(More)
BACKGROUND The use of silica coated magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents has resulted in the production of highly stable, non-toxic solutions that can be manipulated via an external magnetic field. As a result, the interaction of these nanocomposites with cells is of vital importance in understanding their behaviour and biocompatibility. Here we report(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacist interventions are one of the pivotal parts of a clinical pharmacy service within a hospital. This study estimates the cost avoidance generated by pharmacist interventions due to the prevention of adverse drug events (ADE). The types of interventions identified are also analysed. METHODS Interventions recorded by a team of hospital(More)
This paper describes a bias problem encountered in a machine learning approach to outcome prediction in anticoagulant drug therapy. The outcome to be predicted is a measure of the clotting time for the patient; this measure is continuous and so the prediction task is a regression problem. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a powerful mechanism for(More)