Learn More
We developed a massive-scale RNA sequencing protocol, short quantitative random RNA libraries or SQRL, to survey the complexity, dynamics and sequence content of transcriptomes in a near-complete fashion. This method generates directional, random-primed, linear cDNA libraries that are optimized for next-generation short-tag sequencing. We surveyed the(More)
The transcriptional networks that regulate embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency and lineage specification are the subject of considerable attention. To date such studies have focused almost exclusively on protein-coding transcripts. However, recent transcriptome analyses show that the mammalian genome contains thousands of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs),(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the capacity to differentiate into all cells of the developing embryo and may provide a renewable resource for future cell replacement therapies. The addition of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) to serum-free ES cell culture has previously been shown to induce transcription factors, signaling molecules, and cell adhesion(More)
Glutamate excitotoxicity is strongly implicated as a major contributing factor in motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Excitotoxicity results from elevated intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) levels, which in turn recruit cell death signaling pathways. Recent evidence suggests that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole(More)
BACKGROUND Expression profiling of embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation in the presence of serum has been performed previously. It remains unclear if transcriptional activation is dependent on complex growth factor mixtures in serum or whether this process is intrinsic to ES cells once the stem cell program has been inactivated. The aims of this study(More)
The vertebrate hedgehog receptor patched 1 (Ptc1) is crucial for negative regulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway during anterior-posterior patterning of the limb. We have conditionally inactivated Ptc1 in the mesenchyme of the mouse limb using Prx1-Cre. This results in constitutive activation of hedgehog (Hh) signalling during the early stages of(More)
The bones of the vertebrate limb form by the process of endochondral ossification, whereby limb mesenchyme condenses to form an intermediate cartilage scaffold that is then replaced by bone. Although Indian hedgehog (IHH) is known to control hypertophic differentiation of chondrocytes during this process, the role of hedgehog signaling in the earlier stages(More)
Ten healthy dogs were fed 30 1.5 mm and 10 5 mm radiopaque markers (BIPS, MedID, Grand Rapids) mixed with sufficient quantities of a high fibre diet to meet 25% of their estimated daily caloric requirements. Abdominal radiographs were made at two hour intervals until 90% of the small and large markers had left the colon. The mean residence times (MRT) of(More)
In this paper, we describe a method that allows a hypermedia document to retain its hyperlinks in the printed copy. The method associates the hyperlinks with cutout tabs on the edges of the printed pages. A method for modelling the cutout tabs and optimizing their assignment to the hyperlinks is discussed. We also describe a prototype authoring system that(More)
  • 1