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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and for butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were markedly more specific than conventional assays using selective enzyme inhibitors. The new assays were used with blood and brain samples containing traces of one enzyme dominated by large amounts of the other. The results showed that human plasma(More)
We have mapped areas within the central nervous system (CNS) of the developing fetal rat which immunostain for the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR). The VDR was detected from days 12 to 21 of gestation throughout the CNS; immunostaining was particularly intense in the neuroepithelium and within the differentiating fields of various areas of the(More)
We have described recently an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) knockout mouse. While comparing the tissue distribution of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), we found that extraction buffers containing Triton X-100 strongly inhibited mouse BChE activity. In contrast, buffers with Tween 20 caused no inhibition of BChE. Conventional techniques grossly(More)
We have raised polyclonal antibodies (N6-28, L211-226, L371-384, and C590-607) against peptides corresponding to hydrophilic sequences of the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The antisera immunoprecipitated the [35S]Met-labeled hNET. Antiserum L211-226, directed against a sequence of the putative second (large) extracellular loop of hNET, also(More)
Seven unique monoclonal antibodies were generated to rat brain acetylcholinesterase. Upon density gradient ultracentrifugation, immunoglobulin complexes with the monomeric enzyme appeared as single peaks of acetylcholinesterase activity with a sedimentation coefficient approximately 3S greater than that of the free enzyme. This behavior is consistent with(More)
Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is increased in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, particularly those carrying epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) and certain BuChE variants that predict increased AD risk and poor response to anticholinesterase therapy. We measured BuChE activity and protein level in CSF of eighty mild(More)
The toxicological literature is replete with studies which have attempted to correlate differences in in vivo sensitivity to anticholinesterases with a common in vitro measure: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) IC50 values. Generally, it is assumed that these IC50 values reflect the intrinsic sensitivity of the AChE molecule to the inhibitor. Our goal was to(More)
A scientific panel assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that variability in cholinesterase (ChE) activities in the agency's pesticide/animal study database likely was due to a lack of accepted guidelines for ChE methodology. A series of trials was held in which participating laboratories measured ChE activity in blood and(More)
Ongoing mouse studies of a proposed therapy for cocaine abuse based on viral gene transfer of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutated for accelerated cocaine hydrolysis have yielded surprising effects on aggression. Further investigation has linked these effects to a reduction in circulating ghrelin, driven by BChE at levels ∼ 100-fold above normal. Tests with(More)
Studies in vitro have suggested that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may interact with beta-amyloid to promote deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. To test that hypothesis in vivo, we crossed Tg2576 mice, which express human amyloid precursor protein and develop plaques at 9 months, with transgenic mice expressing(More)