Learn More
We have described recently an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) knockout mouse. While comparing the tissue distribution of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), we found that extraction buffers containing Triton X-100 strongly inhibited mouse BChE activity. In contrast, buffers with Tween 20 caused no inhibition of BChE. Conventional techniques grossly(More)
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and for butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were markedly more specific than conventional assays using selective enzyme inhibitors. The new assays were used with blood and brain samples containing traces of one enzyme dominated by large amounts of the other. The results showed that human plasma(More)
We report highly potent, selective, and low cost bifunctional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors developed by our two-step prototype optimization strategy utilizing computer modeling of ligand docking with target proteins: 1) identify low affinity sites normally missed by x-ray crystallography; and 2) design bifunctional analogs capable of simultaneous(More)
We have mapped areas within the central nervous system (CNS) of the developing fetal rat which immunostain for the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR). The VDR was detected from days 12 to 21 of gestation throughout the CNS; immunostaining was particularly intense in the neuroepithelium and within the differentiating fields of various areas of the(More)
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is important in cocaine metabolism, but it hydrolyzes (-)-cocaine only one-two thousandth as fast as the unnatural (+)-stereoisomer. A starting point in engineering BChE mutants that rapidly clear cocaine from the bloodstream, for overdose treatment, is to elucidate structural factors underlying the stereochemical difference in(More)
We have raised polyclonal antibodies (N6-28, L211-226, L371-384, and C590-607) against peptides corresponding to hydrophilic sequences of the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The antisera immunoprecipitated the [35S]Met-labeled hNET. Antiserum L211-226, directed against a sequence of the putative second (large) extracellular loop of hNET, also(More)
Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is increased in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, particularly those carrying epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) and certain BuChE variants that predict increased AD risk and poor response to anticholinesterase therapy. We measured BuChE activity and protein level in CSF of eighty mild(More)
Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is important in the metabolism of cocaine, but natural human BChE has limited therapeutic potential for detoxication because of low catalytic efficiency with cocaine. Here we report pharmacokinetics of cocaine in rats treated with A328W/Y332A BChE, an excellent cocaine hydrolase designed with the aid of molecular(More)
The toxicological literature is replete with studies which have attempted to correlate differences in in vivo sensitivity to anticholinesterases with a common in vitro measure: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) IC50 values. Generally, it is assumed that these IC50 values reflect the intrinsic sensitivity of the AChE molecule to the inhibitor. Our goal was to(More)
A scientific panel assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that variability in cholinesterase (ChE) activities in the agency's pesticide/animal study database likely was due to a lack of accepted guidelines for ChE methodology. A series of trials was held in which participating laboratories measured ChE activity in blood and(More)