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The disappearance of iron formations from the geological record approximately 1.8 billion years (Gyr) ago was the consequence of rising oxygen levels in the atmosphere starting 2.45-2.32 Gyr ago. It marks the end of a 2.5-Gyr period dominated by anoxic and iron-rich deep oceans. However, despite rising oxygen levels and a concomitant increase in marine(More)
Hydrogen-lean kerogen (atomic H/C < 0.46) isolated from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Chert in the North Pole area, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, were studied by vibrational spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spec-troscopy), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (solid state 13 C NMR spectroscopy), catalytic(More)
The interaction of microbes and metals is widely assumed to have occurred in surface or very shallow subsurface environments. However new evidence suggests that much microbial activity occurs in the deep subsurface. Fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian ‘red beds’ contain widespread centimetre-scale reduction spheroids in which a pale reduced spheroid in(More)
A catalytic hydropyrolysis procedure was developed for rapidly assessing the relative abundances and variety of different biomarker lipid structures in microbial cultures by reductively converting free functionalised and polymeric lipids within whole cells into hydrocarbons. High pressure hydrogen gas and a molybdenum catalyst were used to target and cleave(More)
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