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The outer pollen wall, or exine, is more structurally complex than any other plant cell wall, comprising several distinct layers, each with its own organizational pattern. Since elucidation of the basic events of pollen wall ontogeny using electron microscopy in the 1970s, knowledge of their developmental genetics has increased enormously. However,(More)
The pollen wall, an essential structure for pollen function, consists of two layers, an inner intine and an outer exine. The latter is further divided into sexine and nexine. Many genes involved in sexine development have been reported, in which the MYB transcription factor Male Sterile 188 (MS188) specifies sexine in Arabidopsis. However, nexine formation(More)
Dioecy has evolved independently several times in the large, mostly tropical genusSolanum. In all cases of dioecy inSolanum functionally male flowers have normal anthers, normal pollen and reduced stigmas while functionally female flowers have stigmas and anthers that appear normal but contain non-functional, usually inaperturate pollen. The inaperturate(More)
The need for action on the global environment is now well understood and governments, agencies, non-governmental organizations and botanic gardens have all been working in their various ways to promote environmental sustainability and reduce species and habitat loss for at least 10–20 years. The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) has been widely(More)
Compositae exhibit some of the most complex and diverse pollen grains in flowering plants. This paper reviews the evolutionary and developmental origins of this diversity in pollen structure using recent models based on the behaviour of colloids and formation of micelles in the differentiating microspore glycocalyx and primexine. The developmental model is(More)
The most distinctive feature of planet Earth is that, unlike any other world in this solar system, it is rich in biodiversity. Our own species, which evolved as part of the biosphere that sustains us, has the intelligence and curiosity to explore the world around us and to understand its complexity. Given the environmental challenges that lie ahead we have(More)
 The pollen grains of 32 Chinese species of Pedicularis representing 13 groups within the genus were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The genus is eurypalynous, the apertures may be tricolpate, trisyncolpate, or bisyncolpate and five types of surface ornamentation (microscabrate, microrugulate, retipilate,(More)
Floral diversification in the genus Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae) is remarkable among flowering plants. In this genus, floral morphology and pollinator behavior are closely co-adaptive. In the current paper, pollen grains of 23 representative species of Pedicularis mainly from North America, with two species from Japan and two species from China, whose(More)
Pollen morphology of 36 species representing 14 genera within the tribe Rhinantheae in the family Orobanchaceae was studied and illustrated with light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Five major pollen types were recognized on the basis of exine ornamentation. Within these major types, minor types (subtypes) were distinguished based(More)