Stephen Birch

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BACKGROUND Many jurisdictions have used public funding of health care to reduce or remove price at the point of delivery of services. Whilst this reduces an important barrier to accessing care, it does nothing to discriminate between groups considered to have greater or fewer needs. In this paper, we consider whether active targeted recruitment, in addition(More)
BACKGROUND South Africa's maternal mortality rate (625 deaths/100,000 live births) is high for a middle-income country, although over 90% of pregnant women utilize maternal health services. Alongside HIV/AIDS, barriers to Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care currently impede the country's Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing child mortality and(More)
BACKGROUND Population health planning aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups. Socioeconomic factors are increasingly being recognized as major determinants of many aspects of health and causes of health inequities. Knowledge of socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods is necessary(More)
In Canada, the delivery of dental care is left largely to private markets; public funding is limited to targeted groups of the population and substantial variation between provinces exists. In this article, the levels and sources of expenditures on dental care, the levels and distribution of service use associated with these expenditures and the oral health(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE This paper explores the relation between healthcare expenditures (HCEs) and environmental variables in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN The authors used a sequential two stage regression model to control for variables that may influence HCEs and for the possibility of endogenous relations. The analysis relies on cross sectional ecological data from(More)
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been adopted as method for informing health care decision-makers about alternative uses of health care resources. By comparing the incremental costs and effects of a new intervention relative to the existing approach to dealing with the same patients, decision-makers seek to choose those investments that lead to the(More)
BACKGROUND Role-substitution describes a model of dental care where Dental Care Professionals (DCPs) provide some of the clinical activity previously undertaken by General Dental Practitioners. This has the potential to increase technical efficiency, the capacity to care and reduce costs. Technical efficiency is defined as the production of the maximum(More)
BACKGROUND In South Africa, HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem. In a context of chronic unemployment and deepening poverty, social assistance through a Disability Grant (DG) is extended to adults with HIV/AIDS who are unable to work because of a mental or physical disability. Using a mixed methods approach, we consider 1) inequalities in access(More)
BACKGROUND Recognition of the importance of effective human resources for health (HRH) planning is evident in efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Health Workforce Alliance (GHWA) to facilitate, with partner organizations, the development of a global HRH strategy for the period 2016-2030. As part of efforts to inform the development(More)
Background: Standardized mortality ratios are used to identify geographic areas with higher or lower mortality than expected. This article examines geographic disparity in premature mortality in Ontario, Canada, at three geographic levels of population and considers factors that may underlie variations in premature mortality across geographic areas.(More)