Stephen Bao

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OBJECTIVE The aims of this research were (a) to study the interrater reliability of a posture observation method, (b) to test the impact of different posture categorization systems on interrater reliability, and (c) to provide guidelines for improving interrater reliability. BACKGROUND Estimation of posture through observation is challenging. Previous(More)
The aims of the present study were: (1) to collect normative data of pinch and power grip strength with a newer digital dynamometer; (2) to study the ability of hand grip force matching using a hand dynamometer where the validity and reliability issues were studied; and (3) to study the relationship between hand grip force matching and muscle activities of(More)
This paper focuses on comparisons between the different methods of assessing repetitive hand activities. Various methods were used to measure hand force and repetitiveness of hand activities on 733 subjects in the study described by Bao et al. (2006). Two definitions of repetitiveness were used in analysis of detailed time studies of repetitive hand(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this prospective study is to investigate the exposure-response relationships between various workplace physical exposures of force, repetition, and their combination assessed at an individual level with lateral epicondylitis (LE). BACKGROUND Workplace upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs) are prevalent, disabling,(More)
BACKGROUND Between 2001 and 2010, five research groups conducted coordinated prospective studies of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) incidence among US workers from various industries and collected detailed subject-level exposure information with follow-up of symptoms, electrophysiological measures and job changes. OBJECTIVE This analysis examined the(More)
The objectives were to examine inter-observer reliability of job-level forceful exertion analyses and temporal agreement of detailed time study results. Three observers performed the analyses on 12 different jobs. Continuous duration, frequency and % time of lifting, pushing/pulling, power and pinch gripping exertions and estimated level of the exertions(More)
An exposure measurement approach is described for quantifying repetitive hand activity of individual workers in a prospective epidemiological study on work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. A total of 733 subjects were involved in this study at the baseline. Hand activities were quantified by force and repetition. Force levels were measured(More)
This chapter discusses mechanical stressors that are believed to be associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It starts with an introduction to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (particularly those with high incidences in workplaces, such as disorders of low back, neck/shoulder, hand/wrist, elbow, and knee) in high-risk industries, and(More)
INTRODUCTION There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and(More)
OBJECTIVES Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to(More)