Stephen B. Malcolm

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Neonate Lepidoptera are confronted with the daunting task of establishing themselves on a food plant. The factors relevant to this process need to be considered at spatial and temporal scales relevant to the larva and not the investigator. Neonates have to cope with an array of plant surface characters as well as internal characters once the integument is(More)
First-instar larvae of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, a milkweed specialist, generally grew faster and survived better on leaves when latex flow was reduced by partial severance of the leaf petiole. The outcome depended on milkweed species and was related to the amount of latex produced. The outcome also may be related to the amount of cardenolide(More)
The effect of aphid population size on host-plant chemicalDefense expression and the effect of plantDefense on aphid population dynamics were investigated in a milkweed-specialist herbivore system. Density effects of the aposematic oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, on cardenolide expression were measured in two milkweed species, Asclepias curassavica and A.(More)
Cardenolide sequestration by a hemimetabolous aphid and a holometabolous butterfly from the neotropical milkweed,Asclepias curassavica L., is compared. The oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., sequestered a similarly narrow range of cardenolide concentrations to the monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), from the wide range of concentrations available in(More)
The contribution of Miriam Rothschild to the “monarch cardenolide story” is reviewed in the light of the 1914 challenge by the evolutionary biologist, E.B. Poulton for North American chemists to explain the chemical basis of unpalatability in monarch butterflies and their milkweed host plants. This challenge had lain unaccepted for nearly 50 years until(More)
Monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), larvae were collected during August 1983 from the common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L., across its extensive North American range from North Dakota, east to Vermont, and south to Virginia. This confirms that the late summer distribution of breeding monarchs in eastern North America coincides with the range of this(More)
Monarch butterflies sequester cardenolides from their larval host plants in the milkweed genusAsclepias for use in defense against predation. Of 108Asclepias species in North America, monarchs are known to feed as larvae on 27. Research on 11 of these has shown that monarchs sequester cardenolides most effectively, to an asymptote of approximately 350(More)
Two toxic and bitter-tasting cardenolides (cardiac-active steroids) were sequestered by the brightly colored oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., from the neotropical milkweed host plantAsclepias curassavica L. After feeding on milkweed-reared aphids, the orb-web spiderZygiella x-notata (Clerck) built severely disrupted webs and attacked fewer nontoxic,(More)
Rhyssomatus lineaticollis is a milkweed specialist whose larvae feed upon pith parenchyma in ramet stems of the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. Compared with other specialist insect herbivores on milkweeds, this curculionid beetle is unusual in that it is cryptically colored and does not sequester cardenolides characteristic of milkweed chemical(More)
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