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Neonate Lepidoptera are confronted with the daunting task of establishing themselves on a food plant. The factors relevant to this process need to be considered at spatial and temporal scales relevant to the larva and not the investigator. Neonates have to cope with an array of plant surface characters as well as internal characters once the integument is(More)
Monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), larvae were collected during August 1983 from the common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L., across its extensive North American range from North Dakota, east to Vermont, and south to Virginia. This confirms that the late summer distribution of breeding monarchs in eastern North America coincides with the range of this(More)
The contribution of Miriam Rothschild to the “monarch cardenolide story” is reviewed in the light of the 1914 challenge by the evolutionary biologist, E.B. Poulton for North American chemists to explain the chemical basis of unpalatability in monarch butterflies and their milkweed host plants. This challenge had lain unaccepted for nearly 50 years until(More)
Two toxic and bitter-tasting cardenolides (cardiac-active steroids) were sequestered by the brightly colored oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., from the neotropical milkweed host plantAsclepias curassavica L. After feeding on milkweed-reared aphids, the orb-web spiderZygiella x-notata (Clerck) built severely disrupted webs and attacked fewer nontoxic,(More)
Cardenolide sequestration by a hemimetabolous aphid and a holometabolous butterfly from the neotropical milkweed,Asclepias curassavica L., is compared. The oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., sequestered a similarly narrow range of cardenolide concentrations to the monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), from the wide range of concentrations available in(More)
This paper describes the influence on predator behaviour, and the survival of an aposematic aphid, Aphis nerii, in comparison with a palatable, cryptic aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, when offered to two predators with different foraging tactics. The experiments were designed to test Fisher's (1930) suggestion that aposematism could evolve by kin selection,(More)
The monarch butterfly is the most spectacular example of insect migration known. Monarchs are threatened by the destruction of their over-wintering sites in Mexico, California and elsewhere, and many efforts are being made to conserve these sites. However, a controversial recent suggestion, that some monarch populations may not migrate at all, has(More)
Accounts of mimetic relationships reflect the traditional enthusiasm with which protective adaptations are described. However, our understanding of mimicry remains largely untested. Recent reviews of mimicry embrace many diverse phenomena, from tactics for defence and foraging, to pollination and mating. Selection for these mimetic phenomena is very(More)
The effect of aphid population size on host-plant chemical defense expression and the effect of plant defense on aphid population dynamics were investigated in a milkweed-specialist herbivore system. Density effects of the aposematic oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, on cardenolide expression were measured in two milkweed species, Asclepias curassavica and A.(More)
There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of(More)