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In the development of speech recognition algorithms, it is important to know whether any apparent difference in performance of algorithms is statistically significant, yet this issue is almost always overlooked. We present two simple tests for deciding whether the difference in error-rates between two algorithms tested on the same data set is statistically(More)
How neuronal activity changes cerebral blood flow is of biological and practical importance. The rodent whisker-barrel system has special merits as a model for studies of changes in local cerebral blood flow (LCBF). Stimulus-evoked changes in neural firing and 'intrinsic signals' recorded through a cranial window were used to define regions of interest for(More)
The hypothesis that functional groups of neurons in whisker barrels are linked to a modular organization of cortical vessels was tested. Endovascular casts demonstrated cortical capillary networks resembling the whisker barrel pattern that were fed from the middle cerebral artery. In histological sections, dense capillaries apparently were confined to(More)
HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV(More)
Global and regional climate models predict higher air temperature and less frequent, but larger precipitation events in arid regions within the next century. While many studies have addressed the impact of variable climate in arid ecosystems on plant growth and physiological responses, fewer studies have addressed soil microbial community responses to(More)
Global climate change models indicate that storm magnitudes will increase in many areas throughout southwest North America, which could result in up to a 25% increase in seasonal precipitation in the Big Bend region of the Chihuahuan Desert over the next 50 years. Seasonal precipitation is a key limiting factor regulating primary productivity, soil(More)
TESSA is an interactive translation system designed to support transactions between a post office clerk and a deaf customer. The system translates the clerk's speech into British Sign Language (BSL), displayed on a screen, using a specially-developed avatar (virtual human). TESSA is a context-constrained exemplification of one of two basic approaches to(More)
Experimental studies demonstrating that nitrogen (N) enrichment reduces plant diversity within individual plots have led to the conclusion that anthropogenic N enrichment is a threat to global biodiversity. These conclusions overlook the influence of spatial scale, however, as N enrichment may alter beta diversity (i.e., how similar plots are in their(More)
The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG), a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic wounds affect millions of people and cost billions of dollars in the United States each year. These wounds harbor polymicrobial biofilm communities, which can be difficult to elucidate using culturing methods. Clinical molecular microbiological methods are increasingly being employed to investigate the microbiota of chronic infections,(More)