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Staging methodologies are an essential tool in the assessment of disease severity in progressive dementing illness. Several different instruments have been developed for this purpose. One of the most widely used methodologies is the Global Deterioration Scale/Functional Assessment Staging (GDS/FAST) system. This system has been studied extensively and(More)
To address the issue of mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is necessary to initially establish some agreement on terminology. In recent decades, these terms have frequently been defined using screening instrument scores with measures such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). There are many problems with this approach, perhaps(More)
Much has been learned about the clinical symptomatology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ontogenic reciprocal relationships in the past few decades. It is now possible to describe and verify inexorable symptomatic sequences and corresponding temporal relationships. It is also possible to identify more variable symptoms in AD. Ontogenic models can be useful(More)
Data from clinical, electrophysiologic, neurophysiologic, neuroimaging and neuropathologic sources indicates that the progression of brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) deterioration proceeds inversely to human ontogenic acquisition patterns. A word for this process of degenerative developmental recapitulation, "retrogenesis", has been proposed. These(More)
A clinician should not rely entirely upon a caregiver's report regarding behavioral pathology when planning a treatment strategy. Direct observational evaluation instruments as well as caregiver-based assessments are necessary. A new scale for the empirical (observational) evaluation of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias,(More)
The Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD) is a well-established instrument, designed to assess potentially remediable behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as well as to evaluate treatment outcome. It consists of 25 symptoms grouped into seven categories. Each symptom is scored on the basis of severity on a(More)
Behavioral disturbances in dementia are some of the most burden-some features with which the caregivers must cope. These symptoms are particularly important because they are likely to be responsive to both pharmacological and nonpharmacological intervention strategies. Before the 1980s, rating scales for patients suffering from dementia did not separate(More)
We investigated the reliability, using a telephone interview procedure, of cognitive, functional, and behavioral scales in an elderly population with normal aging and dementia. Two clinicians performed the assessments: one performed the assessments in a telephone interview format and the other conducted the assessments at the clinic. The telephone interview(More)
BACKGROUND General relationships between dotage and infancy and childhood have been acknowledged for more than two millennia. Recent findings indicate precise relationships between functional, praxic, and feeding changes in the course of the degenerative dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and inverse corresponding developmental sequences. Similar inverse(More)