Stephen Ashwal

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Autism is a common disorder of childhood, affecting 1 in 500 children. Yet, it often remains unrecognized and undiagnosed until or after late preschool age because appropriate tools for routine developmental screening and screening specifically for autism have not been available. Early identification of children with autism and intensive, early intervention(More)
Author Affiliations Patrick M. Kochanek, MD, FCCM, Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Nancy Carney, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health & Science University P. David Adelson, MD, FACS, FAAP, Director, Barrow Neurological(More)
OBJECTIVE To update the 1997 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding sports concussion, focusing on 4 questions: 1) What factors increase/decrease concussion risk? 2) What diagnostic tools identify those with concussion and those at increased risk for severe/prolonged early impairments, neurologic catastrophe, or chronic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the current best practice for treatment of infantile spasms in children. METHODS Database searches of MEDLINE from 1966 and EMBASE from 1980 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Inclusion criteria were the documented presence of infantile spasms and hypsarrhythmia. Outcome measures included complete(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The present studies examined the hypothesis that the distribution of cerebral injury after a focal ischemic insult is associated with the regional distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. METHODS Based on previous studies that certain anatomically well-defined areas are prone to become either core or penumbra after(More)
Neuroimaging with diffusion-weighted imaging is routinely used for clinical diagnosis/prognosis. Its quantitative parameter, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), is thought to reflect water mobility in brain tissues. After injury, reduced ADC values are thought to be secondary to decreases in the extracellular space caused by cell swelling. However,(More)
PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of a high-spatial-resolution susceptibility-weighted (SW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique with that of a conventional gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) MR imaging technique for detection of hemorrhage in children and adolescents with diffuse axonal injury (DAI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven young patients with a(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) related tumors are characterized by constitutively activated mTOR signaling due to mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. METHODS We completed a phase 2 multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, for the treatment of kidney angiomyolipomas. RESULTS 36 adults with TSC or TSC/LAM(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in children and adolescents. The neuropathological sequelae that result from TBI are a complex cascade of events including edema formation, which occurs more frequently in the pediatric than the adult population. This developmental difference in the response to injury may be(More)
In cerebrovascular disease, edema formation is frequently observed within the first 7 days and is characterized by molecular and cellular changes in the neurovascular unit. The presence of water channels, aquaporins (AQPs), within the neurovascular unit has led to intensive research in understanding the underlying roles of each of the AQPs under normal(More)