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The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of discomfort over time by a group of 70 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Patients who were selected for comprehensive orthodontic treatment completed questionnaires before insertion of separators and initial arch wires and after placement at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. The level of(More)
Studies have shown that patients undergoing orthodontic tooth movement can experience varying degrees of discomfort. The objective of this study was to determine whether nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, which inhibit prostaglandin synthesis through acetylation and inactivation of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, can suppress(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections are associated with consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, contaminated food, and exposure of wounds to warm seawater. Foodborne outbreaks and sporadic infections from Vibrio species in 4 Gulf Coast states are reported routinely to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Between 1988 and 1997, 345(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the characteristics and the cause of an outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with eating raw oysters. DESIGN Survey of groups of persons reporting illness to the health department after eating oysters; survey of convenience sample of oyster harvesters; and tracing of implicated oysters. SETTING General community. MAIN OUTCOME(More)
Vibrio vulnificus infections are highly lethal and associated with consumption of raw shellfish and exposure of wounds to seawater. V. vulnificus infections were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 23 states. For primary septicemia infections, oyster trace-backs were performed and water temperature data obtained at harvesting(More)
The effect of treatment of marmosets with ciprofibrate for 3 years on activities of hepatic enzymes, hepatic histomorphology, and ultrastructure were investigated. Male and female marmosets were dosed with ciprofibrate (2, 10, and 20 mg/kg) by oral gavage once daily for 3 years. No effect on liver weight (adjusted for body weight) or liver morphology was(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine if audio distraction could decrease patient anxiety, pain and disruptive behavior during pediatric dental procedures. METHODS Forty-five children between the ages of 4 to 6 years had two visits each involving restorative dentistry with local anesthesia in a mandibular quadrant. Visit #1 was a baseline(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza vaccination rates among adults, especially in minority populations, remain below national goals of 90%. This study investigated in diverse settings, facilitators of and barriers to patient influenza vaccination from the physician's perspective. METHODS Two-stage, stratified, random-cluster sampling was employed to select 71 clinicians(More)
PURPOSE We wanted to determine whether metformin is an effective medication for treatment of overweight or obese adults who do not have diabetes mellitus or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS We searched MEDLINE (1966-2003), EMBASE (1986-2003), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (1985-2003), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts(More)
The safe sedation of children for procedures requires a systematic approach that includes the following: no administration of sedating medication without the safety net of medical supervision; careful presedation evaluation for underlying medical or surgical conditions that would place the child at increased risk from sedating medications; appropriate(More)