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Six healthy young male volunteers at a contract research organization were enrolled in the first phase 1 clinical trial of TGN1412, a novel superagonist anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody that directly stimulates T cells. Within 90 minutes after receiving a single intravenous dose of the drug, all six volunteers had a systemic inflammatory response characterized(More)
Artemisinins are extracted from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) and are the most potent antimalarials available, rapidly killing all asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinins are sesquiterpene lactones widely used to treat multidrug-resistant malaria, a disease that annually claims 1 million lives. Despite extensive clinical and laboratory(More)
AIMS Albendazole (ABZ; methyl 5-propylthio-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate) is a broad spectrum anthelmintic whose activity resides both in the parent compound and its sulphoxide metabolite (ABS). There are numerous reports of ABZ metabolism in animals but relatively few in humans. We have investigated the sulphoxidation of ABZ in human liver microsomes and(More)
The saturable uptake of chloroquine by parasites of Plasmodium falciparum has been attributed to specific carrier-mediated transport of chloroquine. It is suggested that chloroquine is transported in exchange for protons by the parasite membrane Na+/H+ exchanger [J Biol Chem 272:2652-2658 (1997)]. Once inside the parasite, it is proposed that chloroquine(More)
We have investigated the contribution of drug accumulation and inhibition of heme polymerization to the in vitro activities of a series of antimalarial drugs. Only those compounds exhibiting structural relatedness to the quinolines inhibited heme polymerization. We could find no direct correlation between in vitro activity against chloroquine-susceptible or(More)
BACKGROUND The multidrug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MRP1 are functionally expressed in several subclasses of lymphocytes. HIV-1 protease inhibitors interact with both; consequently the transporters could reduce the local concentration of HIV-1 protease inhibitors and, thus, influence the selection of viral mutants. OBJECTIVES To study the(More)
New inhibitors are urgently needed to overcome the burgeoning problem of drug resistance in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Targeting the folate pathway has proved to be a powerful strategy for drug development against rapidly multiplying systems such as cancer cells and microorganisms. Antifolates have long been used for malaria treatment(More)
Here we provide definitive evidence that chloroquine (CQ) uptake in Plasmodium falciparum is determined by binding to ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX). Specific proteinase inhibitors that block the degradation of hemoglobin and stop the generation of FPIX also inhibit CQ uptake. Food vacuole enzymes can generate cell-free binding, using human hemoglobin as a(More)
The relative contributions of the debrisoquin and mephenytoin isozymes of hepatic cytochrome P-450 to the stereoselective metabolism of propranolol have been studied in a panel of volunteers of known oxidative phenotypes. Six subjects were extensive metabolizers of both debrisoquin and mephenytoin (EM). Four subjects were poor metabolizers of debrisoquin(More)
Recent studies have highlighted the importance of a parasite protein referred to as the chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) in the molecular basis of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to the quinoline antimalarials. PfCRT, an integral membrane protein with 10 predicted transmembrane domains, is a member of the drug/metabolite transporter superfamily(More)