Stephen A. Hines

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The virulence plasmids of the equine virulent strains Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and 103 were sequenced, and their genetic structure was analyzed. p33701 was 80,610 bp in length, and p103 was 1 bp shorter; their sequences were virtually identical. The plasmids contained 64 open reading frames (ORFs), 22 of which were homologous with genes of known function(More)
Monospecific antibodies against native and recombinant versions of the major merozoite surface antigen (MSA-1) of Babesia bovis neutralize the infectivity of merozoites from Texas and Mexico strains in vitro. Sequence analysis shows that MSA-1 and a related, co-expressed 44 kDa merozoite surface protein (MSA-2) are encoded by members of a multigene family(More)
Rhodococcus equi causes severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals. This facultative intracellular pathogen produces similar lesions in immunocompromised humans, particularly in AIDS patients. Virulent strains of R. equi bear a large plasmid that is required for intracellular survival within macrophages and for virulence in foals and mice. Only two(More)
Eight surface-radioiodinated merozoite proteins from a cloned, pathogenic isolate of Babesia bovis can be immunoprecipitated by antibody from cattle that are completely protected against clinical babesiosis. Among these eight surface proteins, the 55- and 42-kDa molecules are biosynthetically labeled with [3H]glucosamine. The 42-kDa glycoprotein can also be(More)
A hypervariable region (HVR) previously identified in the carboxy-terminal one-third of the Babesia bovis variable merozoite surface antigen family was more extensively analyzed in merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) from 16 strains and isolates. The MSA-1 HVR is proline rich and contains three semiconserved motifs nearly identical to those described for(More)
Immune adult horses have CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that recognize and lyse Rhodococcus equi-infected cells in an equine lymphocyte alloantigen (ELA)-A [classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I]-unrestricted fashion. As protein antigens are MHC class I-restricted, the lack of restriction suggests that the bacterial antigens being(More)
The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1), a member of the variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family, is an immunodominant glycoprotein which elicits antibodies that inhibit erythrocyte invasion. While antigenic polymorphism is a general feature of vmsa genes, the molecular basis and extent of msa-1 sequence polymorphism have not been(More)
Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive bacterium that infects alveolar macrophages and causes rhodococcal pneumonia in horses and humans. The virulence plasmid of R. equi appears to be required for both pathogenicity in the horse and the induction of protective immunity. An understanding of the mechanisms by which virulent R. equi circumvents protective host(More)
The Babesia bigemina rap-1 gene locus contains five tandemly arranged copies of rap-1a genes. However, the size of the locus, as defined by conserved, unrelated orfs at the 5' and 3' ends, suggests that additional genes may be present. In this study, we identified all additional genes in the locus and characterized their pattern of expression in merozoites.(More)
Babesia bigemina apical membrane polypeptide p58, encoded by a multigene family with homologues in other Babesia spp. and sequence similarity to rhoptry proteins in other apicomplexan parasites, was identified within merozoite rhoptries using immunoelectron microscopy. To identify additional B. bigemina rhoptry proteins, rhoptries were isolated from French(More)